Xanax is the generic name for Alprazolam.
It is a sedative for the Central Nervous System (CNS) that falls into the category of medications known as benzodiazepines.
This class includes tranquilizers like lorazepam, Valium, and Libritabs. Xanax is prescribed by licensed doctors and is classified as a controlled category IV substance. Manufacturers recommend Xanax for the treatment of tension, nervousness, and panic attacks.
Benzodiazepines are under public investigation mainly for their highly addictive properties. When these drugs were initially developed (Xanax was patented in 1969), pharmaceutical manufacturers declared that they were not habit-forming or that they were not addictive. Still, experience has shown that these are some of the most addictive drugs on the market. It is estimated that three million people in the United States have used benzodiazepines daily for periods of at least one year.
On the street, Xanax is known by the following names:
- Stairs, and
- Yellow Trucks
The fact that an estimated three million people have been taking benzodiazepines daily for more than a year indicates that patients should be more aware and be more careful not to follow doctors’ suggestions blindly when they are recommended and prescribed. Psychoactive medications This statistic also demonstrates, as doctors ignore recommended prescribed information on drugs such as Xanax, since the Federal Secretariat of Medicines recommends that Xanax be prescribed for periods of less than eight weeks for the treatment of panic attacks and anxiety.
As with many psychiatric medications (drugs), the original defense and presentation to establish its effectiveness was made by the pharmaceutical company Upjohn (now part of the Pfizer company) and was based on reports from third parties compiled by psychiatrist David Sheehan who said that Xanax helped his patients suffering from panic attacks, even though previous research had established that benzodiazepines had little or no effect on panic disorders. Pharmacy Upjohn paid Dr. Sheehan for her “investigation” that helped convince the government to give Xanax approval. The Xanax, and to a lesser extent the Valium, not only causes a feeling of relaxation, but initially causes a sense of euphoria and enthusiasm, or a period of much activity followed by an artificial feeling of relaxation. Many people have reported that after having been taking Xanax for one to two weeks, they began to manifest physical withdrawal symptoms, mainly headaches that only took off by taking more medication.
This potential addiction is stronger with Xanaxthan with any other benzodiazepine. However, the DEA (Agency of the United States Department of Justice that requires compliance with drug and drug regulations) under the Controlled Substances Act classifies drugs according to their potential medical benefit concerning their potential for abuse. And of addiction on a Class, I scale, considered highly addictive as heroin, up to Class V. Xanax and the other benzodiazepines are classified as Class IV, which are drugs that have a low potential for abuse, have medical therapeutic acceptance, and They have a limited risk of physical or psychological dependence. Addiction professionals report that benzodiazepines are so addictive, both physically and psychologically, as the opioid-derived painkillers (opiates) and other Class II narcotics. In some waysXanax is more problematic than opium-derived pain relievers (drugs) in which suddenly stopping it can cause seizures, requiring medical help for withdrawal. At the same time, opioid withdrawal is painful, but not medically dangerous.
The Xanax is so quickly prescribed to relieve joint stress and lack of sleep; there have been many older patients who have become addicted to their medicine “for nerves” inadvertently, and when they try to leave, they discover that their original complaints are now higher.
Everyone should read and understand the side effects of any psychoactive medication before accepting a prescription to ensure that the result of the treatment implementation is not going to be worse than the initial discomfort.
The following are documented side effects of Xanax:
- Respiratory problems
- Swelling of the lips, face, tongue, and throat
- Decreased inhibition (lack of fear when faced with dangerous activities)
- Hallucinations, emotional disturbances, and hostility
- Dizziness, swirling, and fainting
- Less urine than usual, or no urine
- Headaches, fatigue, joint pain, and unusual weakness (flu-like symptoms)
- Problems with speech
- Total loss of memory (amnesia), and concentration problems
- Changes in appetite (including weight gain)
- Blurred vision, instability, and clumsiness (decreased coordination and balance)
- Decreased sexual desire
- Dry mouth, or increase in saliva production
- Nervousness, restlessness, lack of sleep, and sweating
- Intense or rapid palpitations (panic attacks)
- Skin inflammation
- Muscle jump, tremor, and seizures (convulsions)
The list of side effects should stop anyone to risk thinking that Xanax could be beneficial. However, people who are addicted to benzodiazepines or who are withdrawing from other medications are going to take that risk to relieve themselves sooner, only to realize that they have now increased their addiction problems.
Heroin is an opioid drug (derived from opium) made from morphine, a natural substance that is extracted from the seed pod of several poppy plants (opium poppy) that are grown in Southeast and Southwest Asia, in Mexico and in Colombia. Heroin can come in the form of white or brown powder, or as a black sticky substance that is known as “black tar.” Other common names of heroin are the ax, the devil, horse, queen, and black sugar; In English, it is called big H, horse, hell dust and smack.
How is heroin consumed?
Heroin can be injected, inhaled, aspirated or smoked. Some people mix heroin with crack cocaine, a practice known as “fastball” or speedballing.
What effects does heroin produce?
Heroin quickly enters the brain and adheres to opioid cell receptors located in different areas, especially those that are associated with pain and pleasure sensations and those that control heart rate, sleep, and breathing.
Prescription opioids and heroin
Prescription opioid analgesics, such as OxyContin® and Vicodin®, have heroin-like effects. Research suggests that inappropriate use of these medications may open the door to heroin use. Data from 2011 showed that approximately 4% to 6% of those who consumed unduly prescribed opioids went on to consume heroin, and about 80% of people who consumed heroin had previously consumed unduly prescribed opioids. More recent data suggest that heroin is often the first opioid people consume. In a study of people beginning treatment for opioid use disorder, about a third reported that heroin was the first opioid they used regularly to get high.
Short term effects
People who consume heroin report feeling euphoria or “rush”, a wave of pleasant sensations. However, the drug has other common effects, including:
- Dry mouth
- Redness and warmth of the skin
- The feeling of heaviness in arms and legs
- Nausea and vomiting
- Intense itching
- Clouding of the mental faculties
- The repeated alternation between a waking state and numbness (conscious and semi-conscious state)
People who consume heroin for a long time may experience:
- Collapse of the veins in which the drug is injected
- Damage to the tissues of the nose (in those who inhale or aspirate)
- Infection of the pericardium (membrane lining the heart) or heart valves
- Abscesses (inflamed and pus tissue)
- Constipation and stomach aches
- Liver and kidney diseases
- Pulmonary complications, including pneumonia
- Mental disorders such as depression and antisocial personality disorder
- Sexual dysfunction in men
- Irregular menstrual cycles in women
Injecting drug use, HIV and hepatitis
People who inject drugs such as heroin have an increased risk of contracting HIV and the hepatitis C virus. These diseases are transmitted by contact with blood and other body fluids, something that can happen when sharing needles or other items used to inject Hepatitis C is the most common blood-borne infection in the United States. You can also get HIV (and, less frequently, hepatitis C) during unprotected sexual activity, something that makes the drug more likely.
Learn more about the connection between heroin and these diseases in our report Heroin: Abuse and addiction.
Other potential effects
Heroin often contains additives such as sugar, starch or powdered milk that can clog the blood vessels that reach the lungs, liver, kidneys or brain, and cause permanent damage. In addition, sharing the elements used in the injection of the drug and not thinking clearly when the drug is used may increase the risk of contracting infectious diseases such as HIV or hepatitis (see “Injecting drug use, HIV and hepatitis “).
Is it possible to suffer a heroin overdose?
Yes, a person can suffer a heroin overdose. A heroin overdose occurs when the person consumes a sufficient amount of drugs to generate a reaction that endangers his life or causes death. In recent years there has been an increase in cases of a heroin overdose.
When a person suffers a heroin overdose, their breathing slows or stops completely. This can reduce the amount of oxygen that reaches the brain, which is known as hypoxia. Hypoxia can have short or long-lasting brain effects and effects on the nervous system, including coma and permanent brain damage.
How is a heroin overdose treated?
Naloxone is a medicine that can be used to counteract an opioid overdose if given immediately. Quickly adheres to opioid receptors and blocks the effects of heroin and other opioid drugs. Sometimes it is necessary to administer more than one dose to help the person begin to breathe again, so it is important to take the individual to the emergency room or to a doctor’s office to receive the additional help he or she needs. Learn more in the article Opioid Overdose Prevention – Instruction Manual of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Naloxone is available as an injectable solution (with a needle), as an auto-injector (EVZIO ® ) and as a nasal vaporizer (NARCAN ® Nasal Spray). Family members, friends or other community members can use the naloxone nasal spray or auto-injector to save someone who has suffered an overdose.
The increasing number of opioid overdose deaths has led to an increase in public health efforts to make naloxone available to people at risk and their families, as well as to initial relief staff and other community members. In some states, laws have been passed that allow pharmacists to sell naloxone without a prescription.
Is heroin addictive?
Heroin is extremely addictive. Frequently, people who consume heroin on a regular basis develop tolerance, which means they need larger or more frequent doses of the drug to get the effects they are looking for. When the continuous use of a drug generates health problems or problems in the performance of responsibilities in school, work or home, what is known as a drug use disorder occurs? These disorders can be mild or severe. Addiction is the most serious disorder.
Those who are addicted to heroin and stop using the drug abruptly may experience strong withdrawal symptoms. These symptoms, which may begin just a few hours after the last use of the drug, include:
- Restlessness or restlessness
- Strong pain in muscles and bones
- Trouble sleeping
- Diarrhea and vomiting
- Waves of cold with “goosebumps”
- Uncontrollable movements of the legs
- Intense desire to consume heroin
Researchers are studying the long-term effects of opioid addiction on the brain. Studies have shown that there is some loss of white matter in the brain that is associated with heroin use, which can affect decision making, behavior control and responses to stressful situations.
How is heroin addiction treated?
There are several effective treatments to help a person stop using heroin. These treatments include medications and behavioral therapies, that is, therapies that modify behavior. It is important to identify the best treatment strategy for the particular needs of each patient.
Medications are currently being created to help with the withdrawal process. The FDA approved lofexidine, a non-opioid medication formulated to reduce opioid withdrawal symptoms.
Medications that help you stop using heroin include buprenorphine and methadone. These drugs adhere to the same opioid receptors to which heroin adheres to the brain but does so in a weaker way, thus reducing the intense desire for the drug and withdrawal symptoms. Another medication is naltrexone, which blocks opioid receptors and prevents opioid drugs from taking effect. A study by NIDA revealed that once treatment began, the combination of buprenorphine and naloxone is similar in efficacy to a prolonged-release naltrexone formulation to treat opioid addiction. Since it is necessary to complete the detoxification to perform the treatment with naloxone, it was difficult to begin treatment with active consumers,
Behavioral therapies for heroin addiction include methods such as cognitive behavioral therapy and contingency control. Cognitive-behavioral therapy helps to modify the expectations and behavior of the patient in relation to drug use and effectively manage the triggers and stress. Contingency control provides motivational incentives, such as coupons or small cash rewards, that reward positive behaviors, such as not using the drug. These behavioral therapy strategies are especially effective when combined with medications. Find out more about drug addiction treatments in our DrugFacts publication: Treatment approaches for drug addiction.DrugFacts: Treatment approaches for drug addiction.
Points to remember
- Heroin is an opioid drug (derived from opium) made from morphine, which is a natural substance that is extracted from the seed pod of several poppy plants (opium poppy).
- Heroin can come in the form of white or brown powder, or as a sticky black substance that is known as “black tar.”
- Heroin is injected, inhaled, aspirated or smoked. Some people mix it with crack cocaine (this is known as “fastball” or speedballing ).
- Heroin quickly enters the brain and adheres to opioid cell receptors located in many areas, especially those that are associated with pain and pleasure sensations and those that control heart rate, sleep, and breathing.
- People who consume heroin report feeling euphoria or “rush.” Other common effects include dry mouth, heavy feeling in arms and legs, and clouding of mental faculties.
- Long-term effects may include the collapse of the veins, infection of the pericardium (membrane lining the heart) or heart valves, abscesses and pulmonary complications.
- Research suggests that inappropriate use of prescription opioid analgesics is a risk factor for starting heroin use.
- It is possible to suffer a heroin overdose. Naloxone is a medication that, if administered immediately, can counteract a heroin overdose, although it may be necessary to administer more than one dose.
- Heroin can lead to addiction, one of the drug use disorders. Withdrawal symptoms include severe muscle and bone pain, trouble sleeping, diarrhea, vomiting and an intense need for heroin.
- There are several effective treatments to help a person stop using heroin; They include medications and behavioral therapies. However, treatment plans must be customized to suit the needs of the patient.
LSD stands for lysergic acid diethylamide. This is an illegal drug that comes in the form of white powder or a clear liquid without colour. It is available in the form of powder, liquid, tablet or capsule. LSD is usually ingested orally. Some people inhale it through the nose (aspirated) or inject it into a vein (shot).
The street names of the LSD include acid, blotting paper, blotting acid, blue joy, Kool-Aid electric, bumps, Lucy in the sky with diamonds, soft yellow, micro points, purple mist, sugar cubes, sun lashes, and crystal window.
The effects of LSD on the brain
LSD could be a psychoactive substance. Which means that it acts on the brain (central nervous system) and changes your mood, your behaviour and also the approach you relate to the planet around you. LSD affects the way a brain chemical called serotonin acts. Serotonin helps control behaviour, mood, senses and thinking.
LSD is part of a type of drugs called hallucinogens. These are substances that cause hallucinations. Hallucinations are things that you see, hear or feel while awake that seem real, but instead of being, they have been created by the mind. LSD is a very powerful hallucinogen. Only a very small amount is enough to cause effects such as hallucinations.
People who use LSD call their hallucinogenic experiences “travel.” Depending on the amount taken and the way you respond, a trip can be “Good” or “bad.”
An excellent trip will be stimulating and pleasant and cause you to feel:
- As if it were floating and disconnected from reality.
- Joy (euphoria or rush ) and reduce inhibition, almost like the result of being drunk from alcohol use.
- As if his thinking were very clear and as if he had godlike strength; without worrying of something.
A bad trip can be very unpleasant and scary:
- You may have terrifying thoughts.
- You can have many emotions at the same time or quickly move from feeling one emotion to feeling another.
- Your feelings may be distorted. The shapes and sizes of the objects are altered. Or your senses can “cross.” You can feel or hear colours and see sounds.
- The fears you can usually control are out of control. For example, you may have thoughts of fatality and pessimism, such as thoughts that you will soon die or that you want to hurt yourself or others.
The danger of LSD is that its effects are unpredictable. That means that by using it, you don’t know if you will have a good trip or a bad trip.
How quickly you will feel the effects of LSD will depend on the way you use it:
- Taken orally: the fact usually begins after 20 to 30 minutes. The effect peaks after 2 to 4 hours and can last up to 12 hours.
- Injected: If supplied through a vein, the effects of LSD begin in 10 minutes.
Harmful Effects of LSD
LSD can damage the body in different ways and can lead to conditions such as:
- Increase in heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate and body temperature
- Insomnia, lack of appetite, tremor and sweating
- Mental problems that include anxiety, depression and schizophrenia
Some LSD users have flashbacks. This happens when parts of experience with drugs, or trips, return, even without using the medicine again. Retrospective scenes, known in English as flashbacks, happen at times when stress increases. Retrospective scenes tend to happen less frequently and intensely after stopping the use of LSD. Some users who have these experiences often have difficulty living their daily lives.
It has not been observed that LSD generates addiction. However, frequent use of this drug may cause tolerance. This means that you may need more and more LSD to achieve the same effect.
Treatment begins with recognizing that there is a problem. Once you decide that you want to do something about your use of LSD, the next step will be to seek help and support.
Treatment programs use behaviour change techniques through counselling ( talk therapy or talk therapy ). These techniques help you understand your behaviours and why you use LSD. Seeking family and friends to participate during treatment can help support you and prevent you from using the drug again (relapse).
Since LSD can cause mental problems, it is possible to prescribe medications to help treat symptoms of anxiety, depression and schizophrenia.
His recovery continues
As you recover, specialize in the after assist forestall a relapse:
- Continue to attend your treatment sessions.
- Look for new activities and goals to replace activities that involved drug use.
- I spent more time with family and friends with whom I lost contact when I was using LSD. Consider not seeing friends who continue to use drugs.
- Exercise and eat healthy foods. Caring for your body helps you heal from the harmful effects of using LSD. In addition, they will make you feel better.
- Avoid triggers. These may be the people with whom you used LSD. However, triggers can also be places, things or feelings that may make you want to use LSD again.
When to contact a medical professional
Request an appointment with your health care provider if you or someone you know is using LSD and needs help to stop using it.
1. What is Valium, and what is it used for?
Valium contains as active substance diazepam, which belongs to the group of medicines called benzodiazepines.
Diazepam has calming, sedative, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsant effects.
Doctors prescribe Valium to people with symptoms of anxiety, agitation, and psychic tension caused by psychoneurotic states and transient situational disorders. Benzodiazepines are only indicated for the treatment of an emotional disease that limits their activity or subjects them to a situation of significant stress.
It may also be useful for the relief of symptoms of acute agitation, tremor, and hallucinations in patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome.
Valium contributes to the relief of muscle pain caused by spasms or inflammation of muscles or joints, traumas, etc. It can also be used to combat spasms caused by diseases such as cerebral palsy (a group of disorders that affect a person’s ability to move, maintain balance and posture) and paraplegia (paralysis of the lower half of the body, which affects both legs ), as well as athetosis (continuous, involuntary, slow and extravagant movements of fingers and hands) and in the generalized stiffness syndrome.
Valium can be used as an adjunctive treatment (treatment that is given after the primary surgery to increase the chances of a cure) of seizure disorders (such as epilepsy, seizures). Still, it has not been proven useful as a single treatment. In these cases, your doctor will periodically evaluate the usefulness of the medication for your case.
2. What you need to know before taking Valium
Do not take Valium
- If you’re allergic to the active substance or any of the different ingredients of this medication (listed in section 6).
- If you are allergic (hypersensitive) to other medications in the benzodiazepine group
- If you suffer from breathing difficulties related or not to sleep for a long time
- If you suffer from a disease called myasthenia gravis, which is characterized by weakness and muscle fatigue
- If you suffer from severe respiratory problems (Severe respiratory failure).
- If you have severe liver problems (acute liver failure).
- If you suffer from drug or alcohol dependence, you should not take Valium, unless your doctor tells you to.
This medication is not recommended for the primary treatment of psychotic disorders (severe mental disorders that cause abnormal ideas and perceptions), nor should it be used as the sole treatment in patients with depression, alone or associated with anxiety. Your doctor will probably have prescribed another medication for these cases.
Do not use this medicine in children under six months of age.
Warnings and precautions
Consult your doctor or pharmacist before taking Valium.
- If you have liver or kidney disease
- If you have breathing difficulties
- If you suffer from severe muscle weakness
- If you suffer from other diseases
- If you have allergies
- If you have drug or alcohol dependence problems
- If you are taking other medications
Your doctor will decide whether to take a lower dose of Valium or not at all.
If you have epilepsy and you are following long-term treatment with Valium, the use of the benzodiazepine antagonist Anexate (flumazenil) is not recommended to reverse the effect of Valium, since seizures may occur.
Taking Valium with other medications
Tell your doctor or apothecary if you’re mistreatment, have recently used or might need to use the other medicines. This is extremely important because the simultaneous use of more than one medication can increase or decrease its effect.
Therefore, you should not take Valium with other medications unless your doctor is informed and approves it in advance. For example, tranquilizers, sleep inducers, and similar drugs act on the brain and nerves and can reinforce the effect of Valium.
Cisapride, cimetidine, ketoconazole, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, and omeprazole temporarily increase the sedative effect of Valium, which increases the risk of drowsiness.
Also, the metabolism of phenytoin can be affected if you are taking Valium; therefore, if you are taking this medicine, your doctor will adjust the doses of them.
If you need more information about this, check with your doctor or pharmacist.
Taking Valium with food and drinks
Alcoholic beverages increase the sedative effects of Valium, so avoid using alcoholic beverages during treatment. If you need additional information, consult your doctor.
The use of benzodiazepines can lead to dependence. This occurs mainly after taking the medication continuously for a long time. To minimize the risk of dependency, these precautions should be taken into account:
The taking of benzodiazepines will be done only under medical prescription (never because they have resulted in other patients), and never advise them to other people.
Do not increase the doses prescribed by your doctor at all, or prolong the treatment longer than recommended.
Consult your doctor frequently to decide if you ought to continue treatment.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
Consult your doctor or pharmacist before taking any medicine.
Before starting treatment, your doctor should know if you are or suspect you are pregnant or if you want to be pregnant. The doctor will then decide whether or not to take Valium.
Benzodiazepines pass into breast milk, so you should consult your doctor about taking or not taking Valium while you are breastfeeding.
Driving and using machines
Do not drive or operate tools or machines because this medication can cause sedation, amnesia, difficulty concentrating, and muscle weakness, which can adversely affect the ability to drive vehicles or operate machinery. This effect is increased if you have also consumed alcohol.
Use in the elderly
The elderly may need lower doses of Valium than young patients. If you’re senior, your doctor could inflict a lower dose and check your response to treatment. Please follow your doctor’s directions rigorously.
Valium contains lactose
This medication includes disaccharide. If your doctor has told you that you have AN intolerance to bound sugars, confer with him before taking this medication.
3. How to take Valium
Follow precisely the directions of the administration of these drugs indicated by your doctor. If doubtful, consult back to your doctor or druggist.
Depending on the nature of your illness, your age, and weight, your doctor will prescribe the most appropriate dose and will indicate the duration of your treatment with Valium.
Remember to take your medicine.
Follow these instructions unless your doctor has given you different instructions:
- Anxiety symptoms: 2 to 10 mg, 2 to 4 times a day, depending on the severity of the symptoms.
- Symptomatic relief in acute alcohol deprivation: 10 mg, 3 or 4 times during the first 24 hours, reducing to 5 mg 3 or 4 times a day, as needed.
- Adjuvant for relieving spasm muscle-skeletal: 2 to 10 mg 3 or 4 times a day.
- Coadjuvant in anticonvulsant therapy: 2 to 10 mg, 2 or 4 times a day.
Use in children: 2 to 2.5 mg, 1 or 2 times a day, gradually increasing according to needs and tolerance; as a rule 0.1-0.3 mg/kg day. Due to the variety of children’s responses to medications that act on the CNS, treatment with the lowest dose should be initiated and increased as required. Do not use in children under six months of age.
In the elderly or the presence of debilitating diseases: 2 to 2.5 mg, 1 or 2 times a day, then gradually increasing, according to need and tolerance.
Treatment should begin with the lowest dose. Do not exceed the maximum dose.
If you think that Valium’s action is too strong or weak, tell your doctor or pharmacist.
In elderly patients or patients with liver or kidney disorders or muscle weakness, in children, in weakened patients or those with a low serum albumin level, the doctor will prescribe a lower dose.
Rules for the proper administration
Do not increase, at all, the doses prescribed by the doctor.
Each dose should not exceed the indicated limits and the total daily dose, either unless your doctor prescribes a higher treatment.
Valium tablets should be taken without chewing, with a little water or a non-alcoholic beverage.
The tablets will be taken at the most necessary hours, usually in the afternoon or evening.
Never change the prescribed dose yourself.
The duration of treatment should be as short as possible and never exceed 2-3 months. Consult your doctor regularly to decide if treatment should be continued.
Do not prolong the treatment longer than recommended.
To avoid withdrawal symptoms, you should not stop taking Valium abruptly, especially if you have been taking it for a long time.
If you take more Valium which deb e
If you or someone else has taken an overdose of Valium, call your doctor, pharmacist, or the nearest hospital immediately.
In case of overdose or accidental ingestion, consult the Toxicological Information Service, Telephone (91) 562.04.20.
If you forget to take Valium
Do not take a double dose or overdose to make up for forgotten doses. On the contrary, you should continue with normal treatment.
If you stop taking Valium
When the administration ceases, restlessness, anxiety, insomnia, lack of concentration, headache, and hot flashes may occur. It is not recommended, in general, abruptly discontinue the medication but gradually reduce the dose, according to the doctor’s instructions.
If you’ve got to any extent further questions on the employment of these drugs, raise your doctor or pill pusher.
4. Possible side effects
Like all medicines, this medication will cause facet effects, though no person gets them.
If you believe that any of the adverse effects you suffer are severe or if you notice any adverse effects not mentioned in this leaflet, tell your doctor or pharmacist.
The majority of patients tolerate Valium well, but the most common adverse effects, which occur especially at the beginning of treatment, are tiredness and drowsiness.
Occasionally other adverse effects such as confusion, deterioration of alertness, loss of sensation, constipation, depression, diplopia (double vision), ataxia (inability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements), difficulty articulating words, disturbances have been described digestive, heart rhythm disturbance, headache, hypotension, circulatory disturbances, increase or decrease in libido (sexual appetite), nausea, dry mouth or hypersalivation (exaggerated salivary secretion), incontinence or urinary retention, rashes, babble, tremor, vertigo, and blurred vision. The most frequent skin reactions are rash (inflammation of the skin), hives (reddish hives), and pruritus (tingling or uncomfortable irritation of the skin that causes the desire to scratch the affected area).
Very rarely, an increase in transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), as well as cardiac arrest, has been reported.
An increased risk of falls and fractures has been observed in elderly patients and in patients who are taking other sedative medications at the same time (including alcoholic beverages).
It is known that when benzodiazepines are used, adverse behavioral effects such as restlessness, agitation, irritability, delirium (incoherence of ideas), attacks of anger, aggressiveness, nightmares, hallucinations, psychosis (loss of contact with reality) or misconduct. These reactions are more frequent in the elderly and children. If these effects occur, you should stop the treatment and contact your doctor immediately.
On the other hand, the use of benzodiazepines can lead to dependence, especially when the medication is taken continuously for a long time. It is not recommended, in general, abruptly discontinue the drug, always according to the doctor’s instructions.
Anterograde amnesia (difficulty remembering recent events) may appear at normal doses, the risk increases when the dose is increased. Amnesic effects may be associated with behavioral disorders
If any other reaction not described in this leaflet is observed, consult your doctor or pharmacist.
Adverse Effects Communication
If you experience any adverse effect, consult your doctor or pharmacist, even if these are possible side effects that do not appear in this leaflet. You can also communicate them directly through the Spanish Pharmacovigilance System for Medicinal Products for Human Use. By communicating adverse effects, you can contribute to providing more information about the safety of this medicine.
5. Conservation of Valium
Keep these drugs out of sight and reach of kids.
Do not use these drugs when the expiration date seems on the package after CAD. The expiration date is that the Judgment Day of the month indicated.
Medications should not be disposed of through drains or trash. Deposit the containers and drugs you don’t need at the SIGRE Point of the pharmacy. Ask your pharmacist how to dispose of containers and medications that you no longer need. Through this process, you will help to protect the environment.
6. Contents of the package and additional information
- The active substance is diazepam. Each tablet contains 10 mg of diazepam
- The other ingredients are lactose monohydrate, corn starch, magnesium stearate, and indigotin blue (E-132).
The appearance of the product and contents of the package
The tablets are cylindrical, with the inscription “Roche 10” on one side and grooved on the other, pale blue.
Today we want to tell you about the new fashion drug, increasingly popular and that is wreaking havoc among young people. This is the drug Molly, and in this article, we will see its main characteristics, we will know its effects and potential dangers. Let’s start the tour …
1. What is Molly
Actually, Molly is not a new drug but a “pure” form of ecstasy. Its main effect is to produce euphoria since it is a stimulant of the nervous system, and its use usually occurs in nightclubs and electronic parties.
2. How Molly is consumed
Molly is consumed orally through pills or capsules, although it has also been seen in lick papers (such as LSD ) or injectable versions. The effect of a dose of Molly on the brain lasts a couple of hours, after which comes a period of unpleasant side effects.
3. What are Molly’s effects on consumers
Those who use Molly are exposed to various harmful effects, some momentary, and some permanent. Among them are a dangerous increase in body temperature, depression, increased heart rate, irrational behavior, and possible psychotic behaviors.
4. Molly’s composition
In its pure form, Molly is composed of the so-called methylenedioxymethamphetamine. Most doses of Molly are adulterated with other much more toxic substances such as caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines, and PCP (phencyclidine).
5. How Molly acts on the brain
The action Molly on the brain starts half an hour of consumption, and its primary form of work is on a number of neurotransmitters, causing a release of those who cause pleasure and euphoria as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine.
6. Who consumes Molly
Molly’s primary consumers are teenagers and young people between 12 and 24 years old, who are just getting started in the world of drugs and use it during parties and concerts, thanks to their feeling of euphoria and disinhibition. Many times it is ingested in combination with energy drinks.
7. Immediate dangers of consuming Molly
Many consume Molly as they consider it a safe drug because of its purity, but most doses are mixed with other, even more, dangerous chemicals. When their effects disappear, young people can suffer from seizures, rapid changes in body temperature, and also be in a coma. The brain damage may be irreversible.
Did you know this data about Molly? Drugs are dangerous, and, as much as some, such as marijuana, have health benefits, most of them are addictive and even fatal.
The 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a synthetic drug that alters the mood and perception (awareness of objects and the surrounding conditions). Its chemical composition is similar to that of stimulants and hallucinogens and generates a sensation of increased energy, pleasure and emotional warmth. In addition, it distorts sensory and temporal perception.
MDMA initially became popular at nightclubs and at all-night parties (” raves “), but the drug now affects a greater variety of people. Commonly, they call it ecstasy or Molly.
How is MDMA used?
People who use MDMA usually swallow it in capsules or tablets as MDMA Pills, although there are those who drink it in liquid form or vacuum the powder. The popular nickname “Molly” (which is the street language for “molecular”) generally refers to the drug in its crystalline and supposedly pure powder form that is usually sold in capsules. However, those who buy the powder or the capsules that are sold as Molly often receive other drugs instead, such as synthetic cathinone (“bath salts”) (see “Additional risks of MDMA” on page 3).
Some folks take club drugs together with an alternative medication, like alcohol or marijuana.
What effect does MDMA have on the brain?
MDMA increases the activity of three chemicals in the brain:
- Dopamine: increases euphoria and generates more energy and activity
- Norepinephrine: accelerates heart rate and raises blood pressure, which is especially risky for people suffering from heart or circulatory problems
- Serotonin: affects mood, appetite, sleep and other functions. It also activates hormones that affect sexual arousal and confidence. The release of large amounts of serotonin is probably what generates the emotional closeness, high mood and empathy felt by people who consume MDMA.
Other effects of the drug on health include:
- Muscle cramps
- Involuntary grinding of teeth
- Blurry vision
- Shaking chills
The effects of MDMA last approximately 3 to 6 hours, although many of those who use the drug take a second dose when the effects of the first begin to disappear. In the week following the moderate consumption of the drug, the person may experience:
- Impulsivity and aggression
- Trouble sleeping
- Attention and memory problems
- Less appetite
- Less pleasure and less interest in sex
It is attainable that a number of these effects are because of the mix of MDMA with different medications, particularly marijuana.
What other effects does MDMA have on health?
High doses of MDMA will have an effect on the body’s ability to control the temperature. This can lead to a peak in body temperature that can sometimes result in liver, kidney or heart failure, or even death.
In addition, as MDMA can promote confidence and emotional closeness, its use – especially if combined with sildenafil (Viagra®) – can encourage unprotected sexual activity. This increases the risk of contracting or transmitting HIV (with the potential complication of AIDS) or hepatitis.
Is MDMA addictive?
Research results differ on whether MDMA is addictive or not. There are experiments that show that animals self-administer methylenedioxymethamphetamine – a vital indicator of the potential for abuse of a drug – though to a lesser extent than with alternative medicine, like a hard drug.
Some people report symptoms of addiction, including the following withdrawal symptoms:
- Loss of appetite
- Trouble concentrating
Does MDMA have therapeutic value?
MDMA was first used in the 1970s as an aid tool in psychotherapy (a treatment for mental disorders that uses “talk therapy”). The drug was not supported by clinical trials (i.e. studies conducted with humans) nor was it approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In 1985, the US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) classified MDMA as an illegal drug without any recognized medicinal use. Some researchers remain interested in its benefits for psychotherapy when administered to patients under carefully controlled conditions.
How is MDMA addiction treated?
There are no specific medical treatments for MDMA addiction. Some people seeking treatment for this addiction have found help in behavioral therapy. Scientists need to do more research to determine how effective this treatment option is for MDMA addiction.
Points to remember
- The 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a synthetic drug that alters mood and perception. Its chemical composition is similar to that of stimulants and hallucinogens.
- MDMA is commonly known as ecstasy or Molly.
- People who consume MDMA usually take it as a capsule or tablet. Many of the people who use MDMA combine it with other drugs.
- MDMA works by increasing the activity of three chemicals in the brain: dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.
- The effects include increased energy level, distorted perception, involuntary grinding of teeth, elevated body temperature to dangerous levels and depression.
- Many people are unaware that Ecstasy and the supposedly “pure” Molly often contain not only pure MDMA but also other drugs that can be particularly dangerous when mixed with MDMA.
- Research results differ on whether MDMA is addictive or not. Some people show symptoms of addiction.
- Some people seeking treatment for addiction have found help in behavioral therapy. There are not any specific medical treatments for MDMA addiction.
The morphine is an analgesic that is obtained from the plant of the opium ( Papaver somniferum ), popularly known as poppy. Opium is one of the most widely used drugs in ancient times, which has now been replaced by its famous derivatives, morphine, and, especially, heroin.
A brief history of morphine
Morphine appeared in the early nineteenth century. At this time, opium (analgesic used to relieve pain) was prescribed. Still, doubts arose when it came to establishing what dose it was convenient to administer according to the purity of the preparation.
The village pharmacist commissioned Friedrich Sertürner to do a quality study of opium, which was dispensed at the pharmacy. The young Friedrich thought of dissolving the drug in acid, then reduced it with ammonia. Finally, he obtained gray crystals that he used experimentally in cats, thus manifesting his hypnotic power (produces sleep). Having a severe toothache, Friedrich decided to try it himself. When he took it, he went into a deep sleep for eight hours. When he woke up, he got up without any discomfort.
Therefore, due to its somniferous virtues, in honor of the god of sleep Morpheus, baptized the substance with the name of morphine.
The opioid was first marketed in 1817, announcing itself as an analgesic that, in addition, could be used in the treatment of addictions to certain substances, such as opium and alcohol. Over time, sadly, it’d be discovered that opiate is even additional addictive than alcohol or narcotics.
Although it has now been displaced by other drugs such as heroin, morphine remains one of the substances preferred by heroin addicts when they cannot access the latter.
Uses of morphine
It is used in the following cases:
- Postoperative pain
- Severe chronic pain resistant to other pain relievers
- Oncological pain
- Transient pain of severe intensity.
- Pain associated with myocardial infarction.
This opioid can be administered orally (oral solution, tablets, and capsules retard) and parenterally (subcutaneously, intravenously, intramuscularly, epidurally, and intrathecally). The dose should be individually adapted to each patient, depending on the severity of the pain that is present and the response to the analgesic.
In kids, it’s solely used exceptionally and in prescribed doses, per their body mass. Pregnant women are only given morphine when there is no alternative and, given that the substance passes into breast milk, breastfeeding should be discontinued when morphine treatment is started.
Contraindications to the use of morphine
In certain circumstances, your employment is contraindicated, such as:
- When the patient has an allergic reaction of any kind.
- When you can interact with other medications, the patient is taking.
- During pregnancy and lactation.
- In children under one year.
- If the patient suffers from respiratory depression or respiratory diseases that present with serious obstructions.
- In patients with cranial trauma or elevated intracranial pressure.
- Before the surgical intervention, or in the first 24 hours after it.
- When the patient suffers from convulsive disorders.
- In all cases in which the patient suffers, a disease that the doctor considers may be aggravated by the use of the drug.
Morphine side effects
Morphine has significant side effects, such as:
- Nausea or vomiting
- Alteration in blood test results.
- Drowsiness, disorientation, dizziness, instability.
- Blurry vision.
- Dry mouth.
- Respiratory disorders or variations in blood pressure.
- Dependency (may occur if its use is prolonged).
- It can aggravate the patient’s condition when he suffers from diseases such as pancreatitis, asthma, COPD, alcoholism, hypotension, chronic constipation, hypothyroidism, severe liver, or kidney disorders, among others.
- The physical dependence on the vertebrate and withdrawal syndrome within the baby if administered to a pregnant girl. In addition, it passes into breast milk, so it should not be used during breastfeeding.
Adderall is a medication that is prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit disorder. There comes its name from the English term: Attention Deficit Disorder.
It is currently a medication that is most often prescribed in adults and is quite popular among the university community, as well as among young professionals and also among athletes, which has generated a lot of controversies.
What exactly is the Adderall?
Adderall is a medicine made from amphetamines. For their part, amphetamines are synthetic substances that belong to the group of central nervous system stimulating agents (psychostimulants or psychoactive agents ), and as such, what they do is stimulate both attention and physical performance.
In other words, Adderall is a central nervous system stimulant that is medically prescribed, especially for attention deficit disorder (without hyperactivity). Still, it is also used, for example, to treat narcolepsy. Not only that, but in recent years, its recreational use and for purposes such as improving school, physical, or work performance has increased significantly.
It is approved for production and marketing in the United States since 2001 under the name ADDERALL TX, in tablets with a concentration of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30 mg.
Technically stimulants favor and increase the release of catecholamines in the brain, that is, substances such as norepinephrine, adrenaline, and dopamine that are transported in the bloodstream and the neural networks so that we can respond to stressful situations.
The latter has the effect of increasing reaction times, causing a sensation of alertness and of always being awake, and even producing euphoria, thus increasing tolerance to pain. Therefore, Adderall is used to maintain longer attention and to improve physical performance.
As for its adverse effects, the constant and prolonged use of amphetamines can cause sleep disturbances, anxiety, psychotic, and manic episodes, issues that may eventually require the taking of other drugs.
Among the most severe side effects, and since it significantly accelerates the heart rhythm, a relationship between amphetamine intake and sudden death, cardiovascular accidents, psychotic or manic episodes, visual disturbance, and the development of gastrointestinal diseases has been reported, Endocrine and liver.
Therefore, it is contraindicated in people who have symptoms of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hyperthyroidism, glaucoma, agitated states, or a history of addiction to psychoactive drugs. Similarly, it can increase impulsivity in the case of children who have a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Apart from all of the above, perhaps the most problematic and controversial effect of amphetamines is that they are highly addictive substances, which means that they generate a lot of problems, not only at the private but also public level: the need to consume them increases gradually, as well as tolerance (which also increases the dose that needs to be taken); and then the likelihood of uncontrolled use increases the number of people susceptible to developing chronic diseases and even the illegal market.
Difference between Adderall and Ritalin
The difference between Adderall and Ritalin is that the essential component of Adderall is an amphetamine, and the primary element of Ritalin is methylphenidate. Both amphetamine and methylphenidate are substances that stimulate the nervous system, so their effects are practically the same.
What is the controversy?
The use of Adderall (as well as Ritalin) has generated significant controversy in recent years, especially for its highly addictive and highly normalized effects.
It has also been widely discussed because, although educational and work performance has improved, the use of these types of drugs often hides shortcomings that are typical of educational and employment environments. In other words, they are used in an increasingly popular and standardized way, not only to compensate for difficulties in the teaching-learning process of children but also among the university community or among young professionals and athletes who are required to maintain productivity rhythms that They go beyond their abilities.
Consequently, its commercialization is growing, even when the tendency to diagnose attention deficit disorders on a large scale (especially in the United States) has already been questioned.
Some say that drugs were used to make people disconnect from social reality, as a means of escape and to reach different states of consciousness. Now, it seems that they are used for the opposite purpose, to make us connect with that social reality, as quickly and as best as possible.
Ketamine is used daily in emergency units everywhere to sedate people with pain. It is a basic element in the emergency kit of any doctor and is usually used to anesthetize people who are suffering from something unpleasant, such as draining an abscess or relocating a dislocated shoulder. Some research in recent years has revealed that keta could be a viable treatment for depression. In fact, the American Psychiatric Association itself has published an article about it.
But ketamine has another great use. It is found on dance floors around the world every week, where thousands of ravers use it to endure until the early hours of the morning. In 1999, the Drug Enforcement Administration considered it a drug susceptible to causing addiction and classified it as a controlled substance of list III.
Because of what we medically know about ketamine – which clouds your senses and influences brain functions – it is not difficult to imagine why some people consume it without a prescription. But to try to understand in depth why people take ketamine when they party, we consult with an expert.
Dr. Andrew Monte is an associate professor of Emergency Medicine and Medical Toxicology at the University of Colorado. He studies how illicit substances affect the body and is especially interested in what he calls an “abusive use of novel and synthetic drugs,” which is a term among doctors for “recreational drugs.” He explained what ketamine is, what its side effects are and how to consume it safely.
What is ketamine?
It is a central nervous system sedative. It is also used as a general anesthetic, a medicine that doctors and veterinarians use for surgical interventions.
What are the psychological and psychiatric effects of ketamine?
In low doses, it is a sedative. As the dose increases, it becomes what we call a “dissociative anesthetic,” which means that the central nervous system almost disconnects from the body. This allows a doctor or veterinarian to carry out a painful intervention without the person or animal feeling the effects. We are talking about dissociating the mental capacity to respond to painful stimulations. In an even higher dose, it is a general anesthetic that causes people to fall into a coma.
What are the side effects?
There are three groups of major side effects. The first is a cardiovascular effect, an increase in heart rate and blood pressure. The second is the neuropsychiatric effect, a phenomenon we call an emergency reaction, which is when people wake up in a state of anguish and agitation, almost like leaving a bad trip. And the third is relatively uncommon, but it is an effect that can be life-threatening: laryngospasm when the vocal cords contract. If that happens, the person will need CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) or mouth-to-mouth breathing. Sometimes patients also need assisted breathing. It is an unusual effect, but it happens.
Why do you think people consume ketamine to party?
The dissociative anesthetic effect is attractive to people who go to clubs and festivals because it causes hallucinations. If you take the exact dose, you will enter a ketamine hole [ K-hole ] that you have already heard about, and you will have hallucinations and a feeling of numbness in your arms and legs. When the perfect dose is used – something very difficult to achieve – it is probably a very attractive feeling.
But the hard part is finding the dose. If you fall short, you don’t notice any effect. If you pass, you can get into that hole, but you suffer the dissociative anesthetic effect and you lie around without remembering anything. With a little more and possibly you will fall into a coma.
Is it a safe drug?
We use ketamine daily in the ER for painful interventions. We use it to drain abscesses, to treat fractures and dislocated shoulders; well, we even use it for some patients who need a sedative for ailments like asthma Some of the side effects may even be clinically helpful. If a patient is critical and has low blood pressure or heart rate, but needs to be sedated for intervention, this drug is helpful because it increases the heart rate.
It is safe in the hospital, but we give it under controlled circumstances for specific indications and with thorough control. And we have numerous tools at our disposal to correct any adverse effects of the drug.
And how about out of the hospital?
What you buy on the street is not necessarily what you think you are buying. I do research on the excessive use of synthetic drugs and this summer we surveyed people at a Colorado music festival and tested those who said they had consumed ketamine. We did tests on a person who said he had taken it and we found no traces of ketamine in him, but of dextromethorphan (cough syrup). In addition, there are many ways to take this drug: in pills, snorting or injected; which is more dangerous. Each form has different effects. Ketamine deaths recorded mainly have been caused by combining this drug with others.
When you put it all together, without knowing what drug you are taking, the fact that people mix the drug with other substances and the unpredictability of the clinical effects associated with it and their different forms of administration make ketamine a drug too dangerous for the people who are partying.
Is there any way to take ketamine in the recreational field and safely?
The first thing is to do it with someone you trust, someone who can help you if you have problems. If you end up with laryngospasms, you need someone who is well to practice CPR. If you have an emergency reaction and you wake up in a state of agitation, you need someone there who can help you get back into you and take you to a safe place.
In any case, my biggest caveat regarding ketamine is that sometimes you think they are giving you ketamine when in most cases, I would say that 90 percent is not.
Methamphetamine is a powerful and highly addictive stimulant that affects the central nervous system. Crystal methamphetamine is a form of the drug that looks like glass fragments or bright blue-white stones. Its chemical structure is similar to that of amphetamine, a drug used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, a sleep disorder.
Other common names of methamphetamine are blue, crystal, ice, met and ampheta ( blue, crystal, ice, meth and speed, in English).
How is methamphetamine consumed?
Methamphetamine can be:
- ingest (pills)
- inject (the powder is previously dissolved in water or alcohol)
Since the drug’s ” high ” high starts and ends quickly, people often take repeated doses in an “excess and collapse” mode. In some cases, the consumption is done in an excess modality known as “run”, in which the person does not eat or sleep but consumes the drug every few hours for several days.
What effect does methamphetamine have on the brain?
Methamphetamine increases the amount of dopamine in the brain, a natural chemical that participates in body movement, motivation, and reinforcement of behaviors that produce satisfaction. The ability of the drug to rapidly raise the level of dopamine in the reward areas of the brain greatly reinforces the behavior of using the drug and makes the person want to repeat the experience.
Short term effects
Consuming even small amounts of methamphetamine can produce many of the health effects produced by other stimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamines. Among them are:
- increased wakefulness and physical activity
- decreased appetite
- fast breathing
- fast or irregular heartbeat
- high blood pressure and body temperature
How is methamphetamine manufactured?
Currently, the majority of methamphetamine found in the United States is manufactured by transnational criminal organizations in Mexico. This methamphetamine is extremely pure, very powerful and very cheap. It is also possible to manufacture the drug in small clandestine laboratories with over-the-counter and relatively inexpensive ingredients such as pseudoephedrine, a common component of cold medicines. To hinder this type of production, the laws require that pharmacies and other retail stores keep a record of purchases of products containing pseudoephedrine and take measures to limit sales.
The production of methamphetamine also requires the use of other very dangerous chemicals. The toxic effects of these products may remain in the environment long after the laboratory is closed and cause a variety of health problems for those living in the area. These chemicals can also cause or fatal explosions in laboratories and home fires.
What different effects will methamphetamine on health?
People who inject methamphetamine have a higher risk of contracting infectious diseases such as HIV and hepatitis B and C. These diseases are transmitted by contact with blood or other body fluids that may remain in the accessories used for consumption. Methamphetamine can also alter judgment and decision making, which creates risky behaviors such as unprotected sexual activity, for example, which also increases the risk of infection.
Methamphetamine use can also aggravate the evolution of HIV and AIDS, as well as its consequences. There are studies that indicate that HIV causes more damage to nerve cells and more cognitive problems in people who use methamphetamine than in those who are infected with HIV but do not use the drug. Cognitive problems include problems with thinking, comprehension, learning, and memory.
Long-term consumption of methamphetamine has many other negative consequences, including:
- excessive weight loss
- severe dental problems (“methamphetamine mouth”)
- severe itching leading to skin lesions caused by scratching
- changes in the structure and functioning of the brain
- Loss of memory
- trouble sleeping
- violent behavior
- paranoia (extreme and unjustified distrust of others)
- hallucinations (sensations and images that seem real but are not)
In addition, the continued consumption of methamphetamine causes changes in the brain’s dopamine system; These changes are associated with less coordination and decreased verbal learning. In studies of people who used methamphetamine for a long time, it was observed that profound changes also affected areas of the brain that are related to emotion and memory. This may explain many of the emotional and cognitive problems seen in those who consume methamphetamine.
While it may happen that some of these brain changes are reversed after leaving the drug for more than a year, it is possible that other changes may not be reversed even after a long time. A recent study even suggests that those who have ever used methamphetamine have an increased risk of getting Parkinson’s disease, a nervous disorder that affects movement.
Does exposure to secondhand smoke from methamphetamine have health effects?
Researchers do not yet know if people who breathe secondhand methamphetamine smoke can dop or suffer other health effects. What they do know is that a methamphetamine screening test can yield a positive result after a person has been exposed to secondhand smoke. More research is needed in this area.
Is it possible to suffer an overdose of methamphetamine?
Yes, it is possible to suffer an overdose of methamphetamine. An overdose occurs when the person consumes too much of a drug and suffers a toxic reaction that causes serious harmful symptoms or death.
In 2017, about 15% of all overdose deaths were related to methamphetamine; 50% of those deaths also included an opioid, and half of those cases were related to the synthetic opioid fentanyl. (CDC Wonder Multiple Causes of Death — see # 42 on Meth RR.) It is important to note that sometimes cheap and dangerous synthetic opioids are added to street methamphetamine without the consumer knowing.
How is an overdose of methamphetamine treated?
Since an amphetamine overdose often triggers a stroke, heart attack or problems with other organs, initial relief staff and emergency room doctors treat overdoses with the treatment of these disorders, with the intention of:
- Restore blood circulation to the affected part of the brain (cerebral embolism)
- Restore blood circulation to the heart (heart attack)
- Treat affected organs
Is methamphetamine addictive?
Yes, methamphetamine is highly addictive. When a person stops using it, withdrawal symptoms may include:
- deep depression
- strong desire to use the drug
How is methamphetamine addiction treated?
While research is ongoing, there are currently no government-approved medications for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction. The good news is that improper methamphetamine use can be prevented and drug addiction can be treated with behavioral therapies. The most effective treatments for upper addiction up to now are activity therapies:
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy, which helps patients recognize, avoid and cope with situations in which they are likely to use drugs
- Motivational incentives that use coupons or small cash rewards to encourage patients not to use the drug
Research is also continuing to create medications and other new treatments for methamphetamine use (including vaccines) and non-invasive brain stimulation through magnetic fields. People can recover from methamphetamine addiction – and indeed they do – if they have simple and direct access to effective treatments that encompass the multiple medical and personal problems caused by prolonged drug use.