Valium contains as active substance diazepam, which belongs to the group of medicines called benzodiazepines.
Diazepam has calming, sedative, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsant effects.
Doctors prescribe Valium to people with symptoms of anxiety, agitation, and psychic tension caused by psychoneurotic states and transient situational disorders. Benzodiazepines are only indicated for the treatment of an emotional disease that limits their activity or subjects them to a situation of significant stress.
It may also be useful for the relief of symptoms of acute agitation, tremor, and hallucinations in patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome.
Valium contributes to the relief of muscle pain caused by spasms or inflammation of muscles or joints, traumas, etc. It can also be used to combat spasms caused by diseases such as cerebral palsy (a group of disorders that affect a person’s ability to move, maintain balance and posture) and paraplegia (paralysis of the lower half of the body, which affects both legs ), as well as athetosis (continuous, involuntary, slow and extravagant movements of fingers and hands) and in the generalized stiffness syndrome.
Valium can be used as an adjunctive treatment (treatment that is given after the primary surgery to increase the chances of a cure) of seizure disorders (such as epilepsy, seizures). Still, it has not been proven useful as a single treatment. In these cases, your doctor will periodically evaluate the usefulness of the medication for your case.
2. What you need to know before taking Valium
Do not take Valium
If you’re allergic to the active substance or any of the different ingredients of this medication (listed in section 6).
If you are allergic (hypersensitive) to other medications in the benzodiazepine group
If you suffer from breathing difficulties related or not to sleep for a long time
If you suffer from a disease called myasthenia gravis, which is characterized by weakness and muscle fatigue
If you suffer from severe respiratory problems (Severe respiratory failure).
If you have severe liver problems (acute liver failure).
If you suffer from drug or alcohol dependence, you should not take Valium, unless your doctor tells you to.
This medication is not recommended for the primary treatment of psychotic disorders (severe mental disorders that cause abnormal ideas and perceptions), nor should it be used as the sole treatment in patients with depression, alone or associated with anxiety. Your doctor will probably have prescribed another medication for these cases.
Do not use this medicine in children under six months of age.
Warnings and precautions
Consult your doctor or pharmacist before taking Valium.
If you have liver or kidney disease
If you have breathing difficulties
If you suffer from severe muscle weakness
If you suffer from other diseases
If you have allergies
If you have drug or alcohol dependence problems
If you are taking other medications
Your doctor will decide whether to take a lower dose of Valium or not at all.
If you have epilepsy and you are following long-term treatment with Valium, the use of the benzodiazepine antagonist Anexate (flumazenil) is not recommended to reverse the effect of Valium, since seizures may occur.
Taking Valium with other medications
Tell your doctor or apothecary if you’re mistreatment, have recently used or might need to use the other medicines. This is extremely important because the simultaneous use of more than one medication can increase or decrease its effect.
Therefore, you should not take Valium with other medications unless your doctor is informed and approves it in advance. For example, tranquilizers, sleep inducers, and similar drugs act on the brain and nerves and can reinforce the effect of Valium.
Cisapride, cimetidine, ketoconazole, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, and omeprazole temporarily increase the sedative effect of Valium, which increases the risk of drowsiness.
Also, the metabolism of phenytoin can be affected if you are taking Valium; therefore, if you are taking this medicine, your doctor will adjust the doses of them.
If you need more information about this, check with your doctor or pharmacist.
Taking Valium with food and drinks
Alcoholic beverages increase the sedative effects of Valium, so avoid using alcoholic beverages during treatment. If you need additional information, consult your doctor.
The use of benzodiazepines can lead to dependence. This occurs mainly after taking the medication continuously for a long time. To minimize the risk of dependency, these precautions should be taken into account:
The taking of benzodiazepines will be done only under medical prescription (never because they have resulted in other patients), and never advise them to other people.
Do not increase the doses prescribed by your doctor at all, or prolong the treatment longer than recommended.
Consult your doctor frequently to decide if you ought to continue treatment.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
Consult your doctor or pharmacist before taking any medicine.
Before starting treatment, your doctor should know if you are or suspect you are pregnant or if you want to be pregnant. The doctor will then decide whether or not to take Valium.
Benzodiazepines pass into breast milk, so you should consult your doctor about taking or not taking Valium while you are breastfeeding.
Driving and using machines
Do not drive or operate tools or machines because this medication can cause sedation, amnesia, difficulty concentrating, and muscle weakness, which can adversely affect the ability to drive vehicles or operate machinery. This effect is increased if you have also consumed alcohol.
Use in the elderly
The elderly may need lower doses of Valium than young patients. If you’re senior, your doctor could inflict a lower dose and check your response to treatment. Please follow your doctor’s directions rigorously.
Valium contains lactose
This medication includes disaccharide. If your doctor has told you that you have AN intolerance to bound sugars, confer with him before taking this medication.
3. How to take Valium
Follow precisely the directions of the administration of these drugs indicated by your doctor. If doubtful, consult back to your doctor or druggist.
Depending on the nature of your illness, your age, and weight, your doctor will prescribe the most appropriate dose and will indicate the duration of your treatment with Valium.
Remember to take your medicine.
Follow these instructions unless your doctor has given you different instructions:
Anxiety symptoms: 2 to 10 mg, 2 to 4 times a day, depending on the severity of the symptoms.
Symptomatic relief in acute alcohol deprivation: 10 mg, 3 or 4 times during the first 24 hours, reducing to 5 mg 3 or 4 times a day, as needed.
Adjuvant for relieving spasm muscle-skeletal: 2 to 10 mg 3 or 4 times a day.
Coadjuvant in anticonvulsant therapy: 2 to 10 mg, 2 or 4 times a day.
Use in children: 2 to 2.5 mg, 1 or 2 times a day, gradually increasing according to needs and tolerance; as a rule 0.1-0.3 mg/kg day. Due to the variety of children’s responses to medications that act on the CNS, treatment with the lowest dose should be initiated and increased as required. Do not use in children under six months of age.
In the elderly or the presence of debilitating diseases: 2 to 2.5 mg, 1 or 2 times a day, then gradually increasing, according to need and tolerance.
Treatment should begin with the lowest dose. Do not exceed the maximum dose.
If you think that Valium’s action is too strong or weak, tell your doctor or pharmacist.
In elderly patients or patients with liver or kidney disorders or muscle weakness, in children, in weakened patients or those with a low serum albumin level, the doctor will prescribe a lower dose.
Rules for the proper administration
Do not increase, at all, the doses prescribed by the doctor.
Each dose should not exceed the indicated limits and the total daily dose, either unless your doctor prescribes a higher treatment.
Valium tablets should be taken without chewing, with a little water or a non-alcoholic beverage.
The tablets will be taken at the most necessary hours, usually in the afternoon or evening.
Never change the prescribed dose yourself.
The duration of treatment should be as short as possible and never exceed 2-3 months. Consult your doctor regularly to decide if treatment should be continued.
Do not prolong the treatment longer than recommended.
To avoid withdrawal symptoms, you should not stop taking Valium abruptly, especially if you have been taking it for a long time.
If you take more Valium which deb e
If you or someone else has taken an overdose of Valium, call your doctor, pharmacist, or the nearest hospital immediately.
In case of overdose or accidental ingestion, consult the Toxicological Information Service, Telephone (91) 562.04.20.
If you forget to take Valium
Do not take a double dose or overdose to make up for forgotten doses. On the contrary, you should continue with normal treatment.
If you stop taking Valium
When the administration ceases, restlessness, anxiety, insomnia, lack of concentration, headache, and hot flashes may occur. It is not recommended, in general, abruptly discontinue the medication but gradually reduce the dose, according to the doctor’s instructions.
If you’ve got to any extent further questions on the employment of these drugs, raise your doctor or pill pusher.
4. Possible side effects
Like all medicines, this medication will cause facet effects, though no person gets them.
If you believe that any of the adverse effects you suffer are severe or if you notice any adverse effects not mentioned in this leaflet, tell your doctor or pharmacist.
The majority of patients tolerate Valium well, but the most common adverse effects, which occur especially at the beginning of treatment, are tiredness and drowsiness.
Occasionally other adverse effects such as confusion, deterioration of alertness, loss of sensation, constipation, depression, diplopia (double vision), ataxia (inability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements), difficulty articulating words, disturbances have been described digestive, heart rhythm disturbance, headache, hypotension, circulatory disturbances, increase or decrease in libido (sexual appetite), nausea, dry mouth or hypersalivation (exaggerated salivary secretion), incontinence or urinary retention, rashes, babble, tremor, vertigo, and blurred vision. The most frequent skin reactions are rash (inflammation of the skin), hives (reddish hives), and pruritus (tingling or uncomfortable irritation of the skin that causes the desire to scratch the affected area).
Very rarely, an increase in transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), as well as cardiac arrest, has been reported.
An increased risk of falls and fractures has been observed in elderly patients and in patients who are taking other sedative medications at the same time (including alcoholic beverages).
It is known that when benzodiazepines are used, adverse behavioral effects such as restlessness, agitation, irritability, delirium (incoherence of ideas), attacks of anger, aggressiveness, nightmares, hallucinations, psychosis (loss of contact with reality) or misconduct. These reactions are more frequent in the elderly and children. If these effects occur, you should stop the treatment and contact your doctor immediately.
On the other hand, the use of benzodiazepines can lead to dependence, especially when the medication is taken continuously for a long time. It is not recommended, in general, abruptly discontinue the drug, always according to the doctor’s instructions.
Anterograde amnesia (difficulty remembering recent events) may appear at normal doses, the risk increases when the dose is increased. Amnesic effects may be associated with behavioral disorders
If any other reaction not described in this leaflet is observed, consult your doctor or pharmacist.
Adverse Effects Communication
If you experience any adverse effect, consult your doctor or pharmacist, even if these are possible side effects that do not appear in this leaflet. You can also communicate them directly through the Spanish Pharmacovigilance System for Medicinal Products for Human Use. By communicating adverse effects, you can contribute to providing more information about the safety of this medicine.
5. Conservation of Valium
Keep these drugs out of sight and reach of kids.
Do not use these drugs when the expiration date seems on the package after CAD. The expiration date is that the Judgment Day of the month indicated.
Medications should not be disposed of through drains or trash. Deposit the containers and drugs you don’t need at the SIGRE Point of the pharmacy. Ask your pharmacist how to dispose of containers and medications that you no longer need. Through this process, you will help to protect the environment.
6. Contents of the package and additional information
The active substance is diazepam. Each tablet contains 10 mg of diazepam
The other ingredients are lactose monohydrate, corn starch, magnesium stearate, and indigotin blue (E-132).
The appearance of the product and contents of the package
The tablets are cylindrical, with the inscription “Roche 10” on one side and grooved on the other, pale blue.
Today we want to tell you about the new fashion drug, increasingly popular and that is wreaking havoc among young people. This is the drug Molly, and in this article, we will see its main characteristics, we will know its effects and potential dangers. Let’s start the tour …
1. What is Molly
Actually, Molly is not a new drug but a “pure” form of ecstasy. Its main effect is to produce euphoria since it is a stimulant of the nervous system, and its use usually occurs in nightclubs and electronic parties.
2. How Molly is consumed
Molly is consumed orally through pills or capsules, although it has also been seen in lick papers (such as LSD ) or injectable versions. The effect of a dose of Molly on the brain lasts a couple of hours, after which comes a period of unpleasant side effects.
3. What are Molly’s effects on consumers
Those who use Molly are exposed to various harmful effects, some momentary, and some permanent. Among them are a dangerous increase in body temperature, depression, increased heart rate, irrational behavior, and possible psychotic behaviors.
4. Molly’s composition
In its pure form, Molly is composed of the so-called methylenedioxymethamphetamine. Most doses of Molly are adulterated with other much more toxic substances such as caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines, and PCP (phencyclidine).
5. How Molly acts on the brain
The action Molly on the brain starts half an hour of consumption, and its primary form of work is on a number of neurotransmitters, causing a release of those who cause pleasure and euphoria as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine.
6. Who consumes Molly
Molly’s primary consumers are teenagers and young people between 12 and 24 years old, who are just getting started in the world of drugs and use it during parties and concerts, thanks to their feeling of euphoria and disinhibition. Many times it is ingested in combination with energy drinks.
7. Immediate dangers of consuming Molly
Many consume Molly as they consider it a safe drug because of its purity, but most doses are mixed with other, even more, dangerous chemicals. When their effects disappear, young people can suffer from seizures, rapid changes in body temperature, and also be in a coma. The brain damage may be irreversible.
Did you know this data about Molly? Drugs are dangerous, and, as much as some, such as marijuana, have health benefits, most of them are addictive and even fatal.
The 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a synthetic drug that alters the mood and perception (awareness of objects and the surrounding conditions). Its chemical composition is similar to that of stimulants and hallucinogens and generates a sensation of increased energy, pleasure and emotional warmth. In addition, it distorts sensory and temporal perception.
MDMA initially became popular at nightclubs and at all-night parties (” raves “), but the drug now affects a greater variety of people. Commonly, they call it ecstasy or Molly.
How is MDMA used?
People who use MDMA usually swallow it in capsules or tablets as MDMA Pills, although there are those who drink it in liquid form or vacuum the powder. The popular nickname “Molly” (which is the street language for “molecular”) generally refers to the drug in its crystalline and supposedly pure powder form that is usually sold in capsules. However, those who buy the powder or the capsules that are sold as Molly often receive other drugs instead, such as synthetic cathinone (“bath salts”) (see “Additional risks of MDMA” on page 3).
Some folks take club drugs together with an alternative medication, like alcohol or marijuana.
What effect does MDMA have on the brain?
MDMA increases the activity of three chemicals in the brain:
Dopamine: increases euphoria and generates more energy and activity
Norepinephrine:accelerates heart rate and raises blood pressure, which is especially risky for people suffering from heart or circulatory problems
Serotonin: affects mood, appetite, sleep and other functions. It also activates hormones that affect sexual arousal and confidence. The release of large amounts of serotonin is probably what generates the emotional closeness, high mood and empathy felt by people who consume MDMA.
Other effects of the drug on health include:
Involuntary grinding of teeth
The effects of MDMA last approximately 3 to 6 hours, although many of those who use the drug take a second dose when the effects of the first begin to disappear. In the week following the moderate consumption of the drug, the person may experience:
Impulsivity and aggression
Attention and memory problems
Less pleasure and less interest in sex
It is attainable that a number of these effects are because of the mix of MDMA with different medications, particularly marijuana.
What other effects does MDMA have on health?
High doses of MDMA will have an effect on the body’s ability to control the temperature. This can lead to a peak in body temperature that can sometimes result in liver, kidney or heart failure, or even death.
In addition, as MDMA can promote confidence and emotional closeness, its use – especially if combined with sildenafil (Viagra®) – can encourage unprotected sexual activity. This increases the risk of contracting or transmitting HIV (with the potential complication of AIDS) or hepatitis.
Is MDMA addictive?
Research results differ on whether MDMA is addictive or not. There are experiments that show that animals self-administer methylenedioxymethamphetamine – a vital indicator of the potential for abuse of a drug – though to a lesser extent than with alternative medicine, like a hard drug.
Some people report symptoms of addiction, including the following withdrawal symptoms:
Loss of appetite
Does MDMA have therapeutic value?
MDMA was first used in the 1970s as an aid tool in psychotherapy (a treatment for mental disorders that uses “talk therapy”). The drug was not supported by clinical trials (i.e. studies conducted with humans) nor was it approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In 1985, the US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) classified MDMA as an illegal drug without any recognized medicinal use. Some researchers remain interested in its benefits for psychotherapy when administered to patients under carefully controlled conditions.
How is MDMA addiction treated?
There are no specific medical treatments for MDMA addiction. Some people seeking treatment for this addiction have found help in behavioral therapy. Scientists need to do more research to determine how effective this treatment option is for MDMA addiction.
Points to remember
The 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a synthetic drug that alters mood and perception. Its chemical composition is similar to that of stimulants and hallucinogens.
MDMA is commonly known as ecstasy or Molly.
People who consume MDMA usually take it as a capsule or tablet. Many of the people who use MDMA combine it with other drugs.
MDMA works by increasing the activity of three chemicals in the brain: dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.
The effects include increased energy level, distorted perception, involuntary grinding of teeth, elevated body temperature to dangerous levels and depression.
Many people are unaware that Ecstasy and the supposedly “pure” Molly often contain not only pure MDMA but also other drugs that can be particularly dangerous when mixed with MDMA.
Research results differ on whether MDMA is addictive or not. Some people show symptoms of addiction.
Some people seeking treatment for addiction have found help in behavioral therapy. There are not any specific medical treatments for MDMA addiction.
The morphine is an analgesic that is obtained from the plant of the opium ( Papaver somniferum ), popularly known as poppy. Opium is one of the most widely used drugs in ancient times, which has now been replaced by its famous derivatives, morphine, and, especially, heroin.
A brief history of morphine
Morphine appeared in the early nineteenth century. At this time, opium (analgesic used to relieve pain) was prescribed. Still, doubts arose when it came to establishing what dose it was convenient to administer according to the purity of the preparation.
The village pharmacist commissioned Friedrich Sertürner to do a quality study of opium, which was dispensed at the pharmacy. The young Friedrich thought of dissolving the drug in acid, then reduced it with ammonia. Finally, he obtained gray crystals that he used experimentally in cats, thus manifesting his hypnotic power (produces sleep). Having a severe toothache, Friedrich decided to try it himself. When he took it, he went into a deep sleep for eight hours. When he woke up, he got up without any discomfort.
Therefore, due to its somniferous virtues, in honor of the god of sleep Morpheus, baptized the substance with the name of morphine.
The opioid was first marketed in 1817, announcing itself as an analgesic that, in addition, could be used in the treatment of addictions to certain substances, such as opium and alcohol. Over time, sadly, it’d be discovered that opiate is even additional addictive than alcohol or narcotics.
Although it has now been displaced by other drugs such as heroin, morphine remains one of the substances preferred by heroin addicts when they cannot access the latter.
Uses of morphine
It is used in the following cases:
Severe chronic pain resistant to other pain relievers
Transient pain of severe intensity.
Pain associated with myocardial infarction.
This opioid can be administered orally (oral solution, tablets, and capsules retard) and parenterally (subcutaneously, intravenously, intramuscularly, epidurally, and intrathecally). The dose should be individually adapted to each patient, depending on the severity of the pain that is present and the response to the analgesic.
In kids, it’s solely used exceptionally and in prescribed doses, per their body mass. Pregnant women are only given morphine when there is no alternative and, given that the substance passes into breast milk, breastfeeding should be discontinued when morphine treatment is started.
Contraindications to the use of morphine
In certain circumstances, your employment is contraindicated, such as:
When the patient has an allergic reaction of any kind.
When you can interact with other medications, the patient is taking.
During pregnancy and lactation.
In children under one year.
If the patient suffers from respiratory depression or respiratory diseases that present with serious obstructions.
In patients with cranial trauma or elevated intracranial pressure.
Before the surgical intervention, or in the first 24 hours after it.
When the patient suffers from convulsive disorders.
In all cases in which the patient suffers, a disease that the doctor considers may be aggravated by the use of the drug.
Respiratory disorders or variations in blood pressure.
Dependency (may occur if its use is prolonged).
It can aggravate the patient’s condition when he suffers from diseases such as pancreatitis, asthma, COPD, alcoholism, hypotension, chronic constipation, hypothyroidism, severe liver, or kidney disorders, among others.
The physical dependence on the vertebrate and withdrawal syndrome within the baby if administered to a pregnant girl. In addition, it passes into breast milk, so it should not be used during breastfeeding.
Adderall is a medication that is prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit disorder. There comes its name from the English term: Attention Deficit Disorder.
It is currently a medication that is most often prescribed in adults and is quite popular among the university community, as well as among young professionals and also among athletes, which has generated a lot of controversies.
What exactly is the Adderall?
Adderall is a medicine made from amphetamines. For their part, amphetamines are synthetic substances that belong to the group of central nervous system stimulating agents (psychostimulants or psychoactive agents ), and as such, what they do is stimulate both attention and physical performance.
In other words, Adderall is a central nervous system stimulant that is medically prescribed, especially for attention deficit disorder (without hyperactivity). Still, it is also used, for example, to treat narcolepsy. Not only that, but in recent years, its recreational use and for purposes such as improving school, physical, or work performance has increased significantly.
It is approved for production and marketing in the United States since 2001 under the name ADDERALL TX, in tablets with a concentration of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30 mg.
Technically stimulants favor and increase the release of catecholamines in the brain, that is, substances such as norepinephrine, adrenaline, and dopamine that are transported in the bloodstream and the neural networks so that we can respond to stressful situations.
The latter has the effect of increasing reaction times, causing a sensation of alertness and of always being awake, and even producing euphoria, thus increasing tolerance to pain. Therefore, Adderall is used to maintain longer attention and to improve physical performance.
As for its adverse effects, the constant and prolonged use of amphetamines can cause sleep disturbances, anxiety, psychotic, and manic episodes, issues that may eventually require the taking of other drugs.
Among the most severe side effects, and since it significantly accelerates the heart rhythm, a relationship between amphetamine intake and sudden death, cardiovascular accidents, psychotic or manic episodes, visual disturbance, and the development of gastrointestinal diseases has been reported, Endocrine and liver.
Therefore, it is contraindicated in people who have symptoms of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hyperthyroidism, glaucoma, agitated states, or a history of addiction to psychoactive drugs. Similarly, it can increase impulsivity in the case of children who have a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Apart from all of the above, perhaps the most problematic and controversial effect of amphetamines is that they are highly addictive substances, which means that they generate a lot of problems, not only at the private but also public level: the need to consume them increases gradually, as well as tolerance (which also increases the dose that needs to be taken); and then the likelihood of uncontrolled use increases the number of people susceptible to developing chronic diseases and even the illegal market.
Difference between Adderall and Ritalin
The difference between Adderall and Ritalin is that the essential component of Adderall is an amphetamine, and the primary element of Ritalin is methylphenidate. Both amphetamine and methylphenidate are substances that stimulate the nervous system, so their effects are practically the same.
What is the controversy?
The use of Adderall (as well as Ritalin) has generated significant controversy in recent years, especially for its highly addictive and highly normalized effects.
It has also been widely discussed because, although educational and work performance has improved, the use of these types of drugs often hides shortcomings that are typical of educational and employment environments. In other words, they are used in an increasingly popular and standardized way, not only to compensate for difficulties in the teaching-learning process of children but also among the university community or among young professionals and athletes who are required to maintain productivity rhythms that They go beyond their abilities.
Consequently, its commercialization is growing, even when the tendency to diagnose attention deficit disorders on a large scale (especially in the United States) has already been questioned.
Some say that drugs were used to make people disconnect from social reality, as a means of escape and to reach different states of consciousness. Now, it seems that they are used for the opposite purpose, to make us connect with that social reality, as quickly and as best as possible.
Ketamine is used daily in emergency units everywhere to sedate people with pain. It is a basic element in the emergency kit of any doctor and is usually used to anesthetize people who are suffering from something unpleasant, such as draining an abscess or relocating a dislocated shoulder. Some research in recent years has revealed that keta could be a viable treatment for depression. In fact, the American Psychiatric Association itself has published an article about it.
But ketamine has another great use. It is found on dance floors around the world every week, where thousands of ravers use it to endure until the early hours of the morning. In 1999, the Drug Enforcement Administration considered it a drug susceptible to causing addiction and classified it as a controlled substance of list III.
Because of what we medically know about ketamine – which clouds your senses and influences brain functions – it is not difficult to imagine why some people consume it without a prescription. But to try to understand in depth why people take ketamine when they party, we consult with an expert.
Dr. Andrew Monte is an associate professor of Emergency Medicine and Medical Toxicology at the University of Colorado. He studies how illicit substances affect the body and is especially interested in what he calls an “abusive use of novel and synthetic drugs,” which is a term among doctors for “recreational drugs.” He explained what ketamine is, what its side effects are and how to consume it safely.
What is ketamine?
It is a central nervous system sedative. It is also used as a general anesthetic, a medicine that doctors and veterinarians use for surgical interventions.
What are the psychological and psychiatric effects of ketamine?
In low doses, it is a sedative. As the dose increases, it becomes what we call a “dissociative anesthetic,” which means that the central nervous system almost disconnects from the body. This allows a doctor or veterinarian to carry out a painful intervention without the person or animal feeling the effects. We are talking about dissociating the mental capacity to respond to painful stimulations. In an even higher dose, it is a general anesthetic that causes people to fall into a coma.
What are the side effects?
There are three groups of major side effects. The first is a cardiovascular effect, an increase in heart rate and blood pressure. The second is the neuropsychiatric effect, a phenomenon we call an emergency reaction, which is when people wake up in a state of anguish and agitation, almost like leaving a bad trip. And the third is relatively uncommon, but it is an effect that can be life-threatening: laryngospasm when the vocal cords contract. If that happens, the person will need CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) or mouth-to-mouth breathing. Sometimes patients also need assisted breathing. It is an unusual effect, but it happens.
Why do you think people consume ketamine to party?
The dissociative anesthetic effect is attractive to people who go to clubs and festivals because it causes hallucinations. If you take the exact dose, you will enter a ketamine hole [ K-hole ] that you have already heard about, and you will have hallucinations and a feeling of numbness in your arms and legs. When the perfect dose is used – something very difficult to achieve – it is probably a very attractive feeling.
But the hard part is finding the dose. If you fall short, you don’t notice any effect. If you pass, you can get into that hole, but you suffer the dissociative anesthetic effect and you lie around without remembering anything. With a little more and possibly you will fall into a coma.
Is it a safe drug?
We use ketamine daily in the ER for painful interventions. We use it to drain abscesses, to treat fractures and dislocated shoulders; well, we even use it for some patients who need a sedative for ailments like asthma Some of the side effects may even be clinically helpful. If a patient is critical and has low blood pressure or heart rate, but needs to be sedated for intervention, this drug is helpful because it increases the heart rate.
It is safe in the hospital, but we give it under controlled circumstances for specific indications and with thorough control. And we have numerous tools at our disposal to correct any adverse effects of the drug.
And how about out of the hospital?
What you buy on the street is not necessarily what you think you are buying. I do research on the excessive use of synthetic drugs and this summer we surveyed people at a Colorado music festival and tested those who said they had consumed ketamine. We did tests on a person who said he had taken it and we found no traces of ketamine in him, but of dextromethorphan (cough syrup). In addition, there are many ways to take this drug: in pills, snorting or injected; which is more dangerous. Each form has different effects. Ketamine deaths recorded mainly have been caused by combining this drug with others.
When you put it all together, without knowing what drug you are taking, the fact that people mix the drug with other substances and the unpredictability of the clinical effects associated with it and their different forms of administration make ketamine a drug too dangerous for the people who are partying.
Is there any way to take ketamine in the recreational field and safely?
The first thing is to do it with someone you trust, someone who can help you if you have problems. If you end up with laryngospasms, you need someone who is well to practice CPR. If you have an emergency reaction and you wake up in a state of agitation, you need someone there who can help you get back into you and take you to a safe place.
In any case, my biggest caveat regarding ketamine is that sometimes you think they are giving you ketamine when in most cases, I would say that 90 percent is not.
Methamphetamine is a powerful and highly addictive stimulant that affects the central nervous system. Crystal methamphetamine is a form of the drug that looks like glass fragments or bright blue-white stones. Its chemical structure is similar to that of amphetamine, a drug used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, a sleep disorder.
Other common names of methamphetamine are blue, crystal, ice, met and ampheta ( blue, crystal, ice, meth and speed, in English).
How is methamphetamine consumed?
Methamphetamine can be:
inject (the powder is previously dissolved in water or alcohol)
Since the drug’s ” high ” high starts and ends quickly, people often take repeated doses in an “excess and collapse” mode. In some cases, the consumption is done in an excess modality known as “run”, in which the person does not eat or sleep but consumes the drug every few hours for several days.
What effect does methamphetamine have on the brain?
Methamphetamine increases the amount of dopamine in the brain, a natural chemical that participates in body movement, motivation, and reinforcement of behaviors that produce satisfaction. The ability of the drug to rapidly raise the level of dopamine in the reward areas of the brain greatly reinforces the behavior of using the drug and makes the person want to repeat the experience.
Short term effects
Consuming even small amounts of methamphetamine can produce many of the health effects produced by other stimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamines. Among them are:
increased wakefulness and physical activity
fast or irregular heartbeat
high blood pressure and body temperature
How is methamphetamine manufactured?
Currently, the majority of methamphetamine found in the United States is manufactured by transnational criminal organizations in Mexico. This methamphetamine is extremely pure, very powerful and very cheap. It is also possible to manufacture the drug in small clandestine laboratories with over-the-counter and relatively inexpensive ingredients such as pseudoephedrine, a common component of cold medicines. To hinder this type of production, the laws require that pharmacies and other retail stores keep a record of purchases of products containing pseudoephedrine and take measures to limit sales.
The production of methamphetamine also requires the use of other very dangerous chemicals. The toxic effects of these products may remain in the environment long after the laboratory is closed and cause a variety of health problems for those living in the area. These chemicals can also cause or fatal explosions in laboratories and home fires.
What different effects will methamphetamine on health?
People who inject methamphetamine have a higher risk of contracting infectious diseases such as HIV and hepatitis B and C. These diseases are transmitted by contact with blood or other body fluids that may remain in the accessories used for consumption. Methamphetamine can also alter judgment and decision making, which creates risky behaviors such as unprotected sexual activity, for example, which also increases the risk of infection.
Methamphetamine use can also aggravate the evolution of HIV and AIDS, as well as its consequences. There are studies that indicate that HIV causes more damage to nerve cells and more cognitive problems in people who use methamphetamine than in those who are infected with HIV but do not use the drug. Cognitive problems include problems with thinking, comprehension, learning, and memory.
Long-term consumption of methamphetamine has many other negative consequences, including:
excessive weight loss
severe dental problems (“methamphetamine mouth”)
severe itching leading to skin lesions caused by scratching
changes in the structure and functioning of the brain
Loss of memory
paranoia (extreme and unjustified distrust of others)
hallucinations (sensations and images that seem real but are not)
In addition, the continued consumption of methamphetamine causes changes in the brain’s dopamine system; These changes are associated with less coordination and decreased verbal learning. In studies of people who used methamphetamine for a long time, it was observed that profound changes also affected areas of the brain that are related to emotion and memory. This may explain many of the emotional and cognitive problems seen in those who consume methamphetamine.
While it may happen that some of these brain changes are reversed after leaving the drug for more than a year, it is possible that other changes may not be reversed even after a long time. A recent study even suggests that those who have ever used methamphetamine have an increased risk of getting Parkinson’s disease, a nervous disorder that affects movement.
Does exposure to secondhand smoke from methamphetamine have health effects?
Researchers do not yet know if people who breathe secondhand methamphetamine smoke can dop or suffer other health effects. What they do know is that a methamphetamine screening test can yield a positive result after a person has been exposed to secondhand smoke. More research is needed in this area.
Is it possible to suffer an overdose of methamphetamine?
Yes, it is possible to suffer an overdose of methamphetamine. An overdose occurs when the person consumes too much of a drug and suffers a toxic reaction that causes serious harmful symptoms or death.
In 2017, about 15% of all overdose deaths were related to methamphetamine; 50% of those deaths also included an opioid, and half of those cases were related to the synthetic opioid fentanyl. (CDC Wonder Multiple Causes of Death — see # 42 on Meth RR.) It is important to note that sometimes cheap and dangerous synthetic opioids are added to street methamphetamine without the consumer knowing.
How is an overdose of methamphetamine treated?
Since an amphetamine overdose often triggers a stroke, heart attack or problems with other organs, initial relief staff and emergency room doctors treat overdoses with the treatment of these disorders, with the intention of:
Restore blood circulation to the affected part of the brain (cerebral embolism)
Restore blood circulation to the heart (heart attack)
Treat affected organs
Is methamphetamine addictive?
Yes, methamphetamine is highly addictive. When a person stops using it, withdrawal symptoms may include:
strong desire to use the drug
How is methamphetamine addiction treated?
While research is ongoing, there are currently no government-approved medications for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction. The good news is that improper methamphetamine use can be prevented and drug addiction can be treated with behavioral therapies. The most effective treatments for upper addiction up to now are activity therapies:
Cognitive-behavioral therapy, which helps patients recognize, avoid and cope with situations in which they are likely to use drugs
Motivational incentives that use coupons or small cash rewards to encourage patients not to use the drug
Research is also continuing to create medications and other new treatments for methamphetamine use (including vaccines) and non-invasive brain stimulation through magnetic fields. People can recover from methamphetamine addiction – and indeed they do – if they have simple and direct access to effective treatments that encompass the multiple medical and personal problems caused by prolonged drug use.
The word cocaine refers to the drug in a powder form or crystal form.1 The powder is usually mixed with substances such as corn starch, talcum powder and/or sugar or other drugs such as procaine (a local anesthetic) or amphetamines. Extracted from coca leaves, this was originally developed as a painkiller. It is most often sniffed, with the powder absorbed into the bloodstream through the nasal tissues. It can also be ingested or rubbed into the gums. To more rapidly absorb the drug into the body, abusers inject, but this substantially increases the risk of overdose. Inhaling it as smoke or vapor speeds absorption with less health risk than injection.
This drug is a powerfully addictive stimulant. For thousands of years, people in South America have chewed and ingested coca leaves (Erythroxylon coca), the source of cocaine, for their stimulant effects. The purified chemical, cocaine hydrochloride, was isolated from the plant more than 100 years ago. In the early 1900s, purified cocaine was the main active ingredient in many tonics and elixirs developed to treat a wide variety of illnesses and was even an ingredient in the early formulations of Coca-Cola®. Before the development of synthetic local anesthetic, surgeons used this drug to block pain. However, research has since shown that cocaine is a powerfully addictive substance that can alter brain structure and function if used repeatedly.
Today, cocaine is a Schedule II drug, which means that it has high potential for abuse but can be administered by a doctor for legitimate medical uses, such as local anesthesia for some eye, ear, and throat surgeries. As a street drug, cocaine appears as a fine, white, crystalline powder and is also known as Coke, C, Snow, Powder, or Blow. Street dealers often dilute (or “cut”) it with non-psychoactive substances such as cornstarch, talcum powder, flour, or baking soda to increase their profits. They may also adulterate cocaine with other drugs like procaine (a chemically related local anesthetic) or amphetamine (another psychoactive stimulant). Some users combine cocaine with heroin—called a Speedball.
People abuse two chemical forms of cocaine: the water-soluble hydrochloride salt and the water-insoluble cocaine base (or freebase). Users inject or snort the hydrochloride salt, which is a powder. The base form of cocaine is created by processing the drug with ammonia or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and water, then heating it to remove the hydrochloride to produce a smokable substance. The term crack, which is the street name given to freebase cocaine, refers to the crackling sound heard when the mixture is smoked.
Cocaine is one of the most dangerous drugs known to man. Once a person begins taking the drug, it has proven almost impossible to become free of its grip physically and mentally. Physically it stimulates key receptors (nerve endings that sense changes in the body) within the brain that, in turn, create a euphoria to which users quickly develop a tolerance. Only higher dosages and more frequent use can bring about the same effect. Today, this drug is a worldwide, multibillion-dollar enterprise. Users encompass all ages, occupations and economic levels, even schoolchildren as young as eight years old.
Cocaine use can lead to death from respiratory (breathing) failure, stroke, cerebral hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain) or heart attack. Children of cocaine-addicted mothers come into the world as addicts themselves. Many suffer birth defects and many other problems. Despite its dangers, cocaine use continues to increase—likely because users find it so difficult to escape from the first steps taken down the long dark road that leads to addiction.
Uses of cocaine
Cocaine is used by health care professionals to temporarily numb the lining of the mouth, nose, and throat (mucous membranes) before certain medical procedures (e.g., biopsy, stitches, wound cleaning). It is an anesthetic that works quickly to numb the area about 1-2 minutes after application. Cocaine also causes blood vessels to narrow, an effect that can decrease bleeding and swelling from the procedure.
How Do People Use Cocaine?
Cocaine can be ingested in several ways, but most people snort it. Snorting this drug regularly can cause serious health problems, including severe damage to the nose. The drug can also be smoked, injected into a vein or swallowed. Some cocaine users rub powdered cocaine on their gums to get high. Others mix cocaine with marijuana or cigarettes and smoke it. It can also be consumed with heroin in a particularly toxic drug mix known as speedball. While smoking or injecting cocaine can lead to a quicker high, any method of use can result in addiction or an overdose.
While the Drug Enforcement Administration classifies cocaine as a Schedule II drug because of its high potential for abuse, the drug does have limited medical uses. Doctors sometimes use it as a topical anesthetic to numb the nose, mouth or throat. It can also stop bleeding in these areas because cocaine is effective at shrinking blood vessels. Because drug manufacturers have developed better pharmaceutical alternatives, medical use of cocaine is rare today.
Dizziness, nausea, nervousness, unusual feelings of well-being or restlessness may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.
Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.
Tell your doctor right away if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: fever, mental/mood changes (e.g., drowsiness, confusion, hallucinations, mood swings), numbness in application area several hours after the procedure, loss of smell or taste, vision problems (e.g., blurred vision, sensitivity to light).
Tell your doctor right away if any of these rare but very serious side effects occur: slow/shallow/rapid breathing, fainting, fast/slow/irregular/pounding heartbeat, severe headache, shaking (tremors).
Seek immediate medical attention if any of these rare but very serious side effects occur: chest pain, seizures.
A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.
This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.
How Cocaine Affects the Brain and Body
When a person snorts, smokes or injects cocaine, it enters the bloodstream quickly.
The onset of the high begins within 15 to 30 minutes of snorting the drug and lasts for around an hour or two. People who inject or smoke the drug will experience euphoria almost immediately, but the high tends to last only five to 10 minutes. As cocaine causes the pulse to quicken and triggers a surge in blood pressure, people experience a rush of energy, alertness, and exhilaration. Pure Cocaine users often describe feeling strong, invincible or on top of the world. In this hyper or wired state, people may want to talk to everyone around them. Shy individuals may enjoy the sense of confidence that cocaine gives them. When the cocaine rush wears off, a crash usually follows. Symptoms of a crash include severe fatigue, anxiety, irritability, and depression. Powerful cravings often follow the crash, and some people experience severe paranoia. Cocaine can stay in your system for up to 90 days. Evidence of cocaine use can be found in the urine for up to four days, but the drug may be detected in hair samples months after last use.
The longer that people use cocaine, the more likely they are to experience serious health complications. The problems can include nasal deformities, heart attack, overdose, and death. Because it’s a central nervous stimulant, cocaine delivers a direct hit to the heart. People who use the drug have a 24-fold greater risk of heart attack after taking it, according to research from the Institute for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Boston. Pure Cocaine also raises the risk of stroke and can lead to severe weight loss, malnourishment, chronic headaches, movement disorders, reproductive damage, and infertility. Emotional problems are also common.
Cocaine overdoses are common, and they can kill a person in as little as two to three minutes. The drug contributed to more than 10,000 overdose deaths in 2016, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Combining cocaine with marijuana or other drugs can also increase the risk of an overdose. Mixing cocaine with alcohol is particularly harmful because it produces a dangerous chemical called cocaethylene. The substance is toxic to the liver and can cause seizures.
Recovery from cocaine addiction is difficult without professional help. Cocaine cravings are persistent, and addiction is often complicated by other factors. Most people who abuse cocaine use multiple substances. They commonly have co-occurring disorders, such as bipolar disorder or depression, which should also be addressed during treatment. Cocaine treatment and rehab programs provide plans tailored to each patient’s specific needs. Simultaneously treating any addictions or mental health conditions that are present can improve a person’s likelihood of quitting this drug and maintaining sobriety after rehab.
Symptoms of cocaine/crack cocaine addiction
Crack is the freebase form of cocaine, which occurs when inhaling the vapours of the drug in its natural state, and appears in a rock-shaped form as opposed to the powdered version of cocaine. This method of taking the drug results in rapid onset of euphoria and stimulating symptoms, due to it being readily absorbed into your bloodstream.
The signs and symptoms of it addiction will vary from person to person, and this is the case with all types of substance misuse. However, there are several psychological, physical and behavioural symptoms that have been identified which have shown to be reliable indicators that you may be suffering from cocaine use disorder.
Being dishonest about your whereabouts, associates and activities
Being unable to curtail your cocaine misuse
Engaging in reckless and risky behaviours
Excessive viewing of porn
Engaging with prostitutes/escorts
Taking crack cocaine leads to an increased risk of tolerance, dependency and addiction due to the fast acting high. This means that crack is often taken more frequently than non-freebased forms of the drug.
If you or a loved one has become addicted to crack, symptoms will be similar to cocaine use but more intense and immediate effects:
The risk of overdosing when taking crack cocaine is extremely high, due to the drug entering your lungs and bloodstream with 10-15 seconds and the initial side effects not usually lasting for more than 10 minutes.
The recovery process is broken down into a few steps: medical detox, treatment and aftercare. Not everyone needs medical detox, but it may be a critical step in the treatment of moderate to severe cases of cocaine addiction. Those who are still using cocaine when they enter treatment will usually start with medical detox.
Detox is when the body metabolizes cocaine and removes it from the body. Since cocaine metabolizes quickly, it leaves the body in approximately 8 hours, based on the half-life of the drug.
People often detox from this drug at home because it does not take long. They can fully detox in a day or two, with some symptoms lingering for the next few weeks. In contrast, medical detox is a supervised version of detox where a medical team oversees the process. Medical detox includes support to ease a person through withdrawal symptoms as well as medical support.
Typically, detox happens in a hospital or inpatient rehab center. People with life-threatening problems will detox in a hospital, while those who are medically stable will do so in a rehab facility.
During medical detox, a person will experience some or many of the withdrawal symptoms. Cocaine detox is not long, but can be uncomfortable for some people.
Those in detox can expect medical, nutritional and addiction support. Treatment centers may take the opportunity to screen for and treat infectious diseases. Detox is also an opportunity for physicians to diagnose and treat chronic diseases, since it may be the first time someone with SUD is seeing a doctor in years.
In medical detox, diets are designed and administered by the treatment team. An individual will have more time to focus on their recovery and will be better equipped to maintain a healthy diet once they leave.
After medical detox is complete, patients will be screened for entry into substance use disorder treatment. Treatment plans may continue in an inpatient (in the facility) or outpatient (live at home and commute to the facility) manner. Those who are ready for continued care can be admitted into a program at this time.
Though the acute cocaine withdrawal syndrome may present differently amongst individuals, many people experience more psychological or emotional issues rather than severe physical symptoms. During detoxification, someone may experience the following:
Strong cocaine cravings
Exhaustion and lethargy
Slowed movements and thoughts
Anhedonia (diminished ability to derive pleasure from previously enjoyable activities)
Ritalin is a medicine that has as its active ingredient Methylphenidate Hydrochloride, a central nervous system stimulant, indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, also called ADHD, and narcolepsy.
This medicine is a type of amphetamine that works by stimulating mental activities, so it has become popular among adults who want to study or stay awake for longer; however, this use is not recommended, and these effects are not proven.
In addition to this, methylphenidate can have various dangerous side effects for those who use it without indication, such as nervousness, increased blood pressure, palpitations, muscle spasms, hallucinations, or chemical dependence. Ritalin can only be purchased at prescription pharmacies.
What is it for?
Ritalin has methylphenidate, which is a psychostimulant. This medication stimulates concentration and reduces drowsiness, which is indicated in the treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults.
It can also be indicated to treat narcolepsy, a disorder characterized by the manifestation of symptoms of daytime sleepiness, inappropriate sleep episodes, and sudden loss of voluntary muscle tone.
Is Ritalin good for memory and studies?
Ritalin is popular among students who call this medicine ‘the intelligence pill’ because it helps with memory and concentration, being useful during the study period; however, the efficacy of this medicine in healthy people has never been proven.
In this way, the person can even spend the night awake studying, but the attention will not necessarily improve, and he may not remember the content the next day.
Therefore, Ritalin should not be used to improve memory and concentration, being used only for the treatment of diseases such as narcolepsy, attention deficit disorder, and hyperactivity, as indicated in its leaflet. If you are a student and need a remedy to stay more awake, and you need to increase your retention and concentration.
How to take Ritalin
1. Attention deficit and hyperactivity
The dosage should be indicated according to the individual needs and clinical response of each person, also varying according to age. So the recommended dose of Ritalin are the following:
Children aged six years or older: should be started with 5 mg, 1 or 2 times a day, increasing the dose weekly from 5 to 10 mg. The total daily dose ought to be administered in divided doses.
The dosage of Ritalin LA, which are the modified-release capsules is as follows:
Children aged six years or older: can be started with 10 or 20 mg, according to medical criteria, once a day in the morning. Adults: For people who still do not have a treatment with methylphenidate, the recommended starting dose of Ritalin LA is 20 mg once daily. People who already have treatment with methylphenidate, treatment can be continued with the same daily dose.
In adults, the maximum daily dose of 80 mg should not be exceeded, and in children, both with Ritalin and Ritalin LA, the dose of 60 mg should not be exceeded.
Ritalin is only approved for the treatment of narcolepsy in adults. The daily dose is 20 to 30 mg, administered in 2 to 3 divided doses.
Some people may need a dose higher than 40 to 60 mg, while for another 10 to 15 mg daily, it is sufficient; the attending physician will determine this. In people who have difficulty sleeping, the medication should not be administered at night, and the last dose should be before 18 hours.
It is essential not to exceed the maximum daily dose of this medicine, which is 60 mg.
The most common side effects that can be caused by treatment with Ritalin include nasopharyngitis, decreased appetite, abdominal discomfort, nausea, heartburn, nervousness, insomnia, fainting, headache, drowsiness, dizziness, changes in the heartbeat. Heart, fever, allergic reactions, and decreased appetite can result in weight loss or stunted growth in children.
In addition, because it is an amphetamine, methylphenidate can cause dependence, if misused.
Ritalin is contraindicated in people with hypersensitivity to methylphenidate or any excipient, people suffering from anxiety, tension, agitation, hyperthyroidism, pre-existing cardiovascular disorders including severe hypertension, angina, occlusive arterial disease, heart failure, hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocardial infarction, life-threatening arrhythmias and complications caused by ionic channel dysfunction.
It should also not be used during treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, or at least two weeks after discontinuation of therapy, due to the risk of hypertensive crises; people with glaucoma; pheochromocytoma; diagnosis or family history of Tourette syndrome; pregnant or breastfeeding.