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Synthetic cannabinoids

Synthetic cannabinoids

Synthetic cannabinoids

Synthetic cannabinoids are a heterogeneous group of substances that were originally designed and developed by scientific researchers at universities and pharmaceutical companies to facilitate the study of the endogenous cannabinoid system or as potential therapeutic tools.

In general, the initial compounds attempted to mimic the chemical structure of Δ 9-THC to try to reproduce the physiological effects of natural cannabis. However, it must be made clear that these substances are not marijuana or cannabis, and that they are not natural substances either. In addition, the potential consumer should know that they are normally much more potent than natural cannabis or its derivatives, since they bind with greater affinity to brain cannabinoid receptors, and are also capable of activating other receptors on which the natural components do not act. of the plant. The effect of these compounds usually appears more quickly than if natural cannabis is consumed, although in some cases their duration is shorter. Both the onset of effects and their duration will usually depend on the route of administration, which in the case of synthetic cannabinoids is usually smoked, inhaled or orally. Buy cannabis oil online

At the beginning of the 21st century, different drug mafias used the published scientific information on these compounds to synthesize them in clandestine laboratories and introduce them to the black market as “legal” or “safe” alternatives to cannabis. Once synthesized, synthetic cannabinoids are dissolved in ethanol or acetone and spray-dried on a mixture of dried plants to be falsely marketed as incense or herbal products. They can also be sold in liquid form to be vaporized and inhaled in electronic cigarettes and other devices (liquid incenses). These synthetic cannabinoids are sold on the internet through different websites, or in certain specialized stores, under a variety of trade names such as “Spice”, ” In many cases a single product may contain a mixture of three or four different synthetic cannabinoids, or they may even appear mixed with other types of psychoactive substances such as mephedrone, methamphetamine or piperazines. Furthermore, the clandestine manufacturing process for these products can lead to uneven distribution of synthetic substances within the herbal mixture. For this reason, some products may have parts in which the synthetic cannabinoid is much more concentrated so that the doses are higher than expected and there is an increased risk of serious adverse effects. Vapes for sale

The success of these compounds and the extension of their consumption in recent years has been due to several reasons, among them their “alegal” commercialization, taking advantage of the legal loopholes existing in the different laws of each country, obtaining them at cheaper prices than the Natural cannabis itself, its misperception among consumers as safe or even medicinal substances, the fact that it can be easily obtained through the internet, and the difficulty of being detected in routine tests. Despite this, the appearance in recent years of hundreds of cases of serious poisoning, and even dozens of deaths, Associated with the consumption of these substances, it has led to European and worldwide legislative initiatives that have ended with the inclusion of several synthetic cannabinoids in the list of prohibited substances. However, the high number of synthetic cannabinoids, their chemical diversity, and their rate of appearance make detection, control, and response to this group of compounds particularly challenging challenges. Thus, when a synthetic cannabinoid is, or is about to be, legally controlled, manufacturers have one or more substitute substances ready to go on sale. As an example, the European Union Early Warning System has detected 160 different synthetic cannabinoids between 2008 and 2015.

Synthetic cannabinoids bind to CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors with a varying degree of affinity and in most cases activate these receptors. Thus, these compounds produce effects similar to those of Δ 9-THC, although between 2 and 100 times more powerful. Therefore, in many cases, they can trigger acute poisonings that can endanger the life of the consumer. In this sense, it has been shown that the risk of needing emergency medical treatment is between 14 and 30 times higher after the consumption of synthetic cannabinoids than if natural cannabis is consumed. A recent online survey of synthetic cannabinoid users showed that 2.5% had required emergency treatment in the last year related to the adverse effects of consuming these substances. Thus, the need for medical assistance is tripled with synthetic cannabinoids with respect to cannabis or other drugs such as cocaine, ketamine, or alcohol. CBD BALMS

In general, the person consuming synthetic cannabinoids looks for effects similar to those produced by natural cannabis, mainly a certain feeling of euphoria, stimulation, hilarity or a state of slight relaxation. However, in addition to these effects, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, neurological side effects or even psychiatric disorders can also appear in most cases. In the documented cases of synthetic cannabinoid poisoning, numerous signs and symptoms have been described, including nausea, vomiting, respiratory difficulties, hypertension, tachycardia, hyperthermia, nephrotoxicity, acute cerebral ischemia, seizures, anxiety, agitation and psychotic episodes.

Another of the most striking features of synthetic cannabinoids is their ability to cause outbreaks of mass poisoning. Sometimes these are hundreds of people affected for a short period, and it has been a major problem in recent years in various countries. For example, in 2014, the synthetic cannabinoid MDMB-FUBINACA caused over 600 poisonings in Russia over a two-week period, of which 15 people died. In 2016, a “Zombie outbreak” caused by the synthetic cannabinoid AMB-FUBINACA was also described in New York. Those affected presented a serious alteration in their mental state with erratic behavior that was defined by witnesses as similar to that of a Zombie. This massive poisoning affected 33 people, of whom 18 had to be evacuated to the hospital. Dank vapes for sale

The clinical management of synthetic cannabinoid poisoning is mainly symptomatic, requiring basic life support with the administration of intravenous sera and in some cases benzodiazepines. The changing composition of the products sold as synthetic cannabinoids, as well as the lack of routine toxicological tests that can accurately and quickly determine the identity of the compound or compounds consumed, greatly hinders the correct diagnosis of this type of poisoning, as well as its treatment. Within this context, one of the main problems associated with poisoning by these compounds is that they are not detected by the usual screening methods used in hospitals and health centers. Therefore, the use of more complex detection methods is required, such as gas chromatography or mass spectrometry, which can delay the identification of the specific compound causing the poisoning for even several days. In general, the period of detection in blood or oral fluids of the different synthetic cannabinoids varies between 12-48 hours, while in urine samples they can appear up to 72 hours after consumption. CBD GUMMIES

The consumption of synthetic cannabinoids can also produce addictive behaviors and interact with other drugs of abuse, increasing the risk of poisoning and its severity. In this sense, the existence of a withdrawal syndrome in habitual users of synthetic cannabinoids has been described, which appears rapidly after the cessation of consumption and has been associated with the appearance of serious symptoms such as difficulty breathing, seizures or cardiovascular complications. severe.

There are also several scientific studies that have warned about the consequences that the consumption of synthetic cannabinoids can have for driving. Thus, it has been shown that people who drove under the effects of a synthetic cannabinoid had less motor coordination, longer reaction time, and in many cases more aggressive driving. All this causes a significant increase in the risk of having a traffic accident. Vapes online

In conclusion, it is worth emphasizing that the different synthetic cannabinoids are potentially dangerous substances since they are much more potent than natural cannabis, and in most cases their toxic effects in humans are unknown.

What is Xanax? Uses, Benefits and possible Side effects

What is Xanax? Uses, Benefits and possible Side effects


Xanax is the generic name for Alprazolam. It is a sedative for the Central Nervous System (CNS) that falls into the category of medications known as benzodiazepines. This class includes tranquilizers like lorazepam, Valium, and Libritabs. Xanax bars are prescribed by licensed doctors and are classified as a controlled category IV substance. Manufacturers recommend Xanax for the treatment of tension, nervousness, and panic attacks.

Benzodiazepines are under public investigation mainly for their highly addictive properties. When these drugs were initially developed (Xanax was patented in 1969), pharmaceutical manufacturers declared that they were not habit-forming or that they were not addictive. Still, experience has shown that these are some of the most addictive drugs on the market. It is estimated that three million people in the United States have used benzodiazepines daily for periods of at least one year.

On the street, Xanax is known by the following names:

  • Bars,
  • Stairs, and
  • Yellow Trucks

The fact that an estimated three million people have been taking benzodiazepines daily for more than a year indicates that patients should be more aware and be more careful not to follow doctors’ suggestions blindly when they are recommended and prescribed. Psychoactive medications This statistic also demonstrates, as doctors ignore recommended prescribed information on drugs such as Xanax since the Federal Secretariat of Medicines recommends that Xanax be prescribed for periods of less than eight weeks for the treatment of panic attacks and anxiety.

As with many psychiatric medications (drugs), the original defense and presentation to establish its effectiveness was made by the pharmaceutical company Upjohn (now part of the Pfizer company) and was based on reports from third parties compiled by psychiatrist David Sheehan who said that Xanax bars helped his patients suffering from panic attacks, even though previous research had established that benzodiazepines had little or no effect on panic disorders. Pharmacy Upjohn paid Dr. Sheehan for her “investigation” that helped convince the government to give Xanax approval. The Xanax, and to a lesser extent the Valium, not only causes a feeling of relaxation, but initially causes a sense of euphoria and enthusiasm, or a period of much activity followed by an artificial feeling of relaxation. Many people have reported that after having been taking Xanax for one to two weeks, they began to manifest physical withdrawal symptoms, mainly headaches that only took off by taking more medication.

This potential addiction is stronger with Xanaxthan with any other benzodiazepine. However, the DEA (Agency of the United States Department of Justice that requires compliance with drug and drug regulations) under the Controlled Substances Act classifies drugs according to their potential medical benefit concerning their potential for abuse. And of addiction on a Class, I scale, considered highly addictive as heroin, up to Class V. Xanax and the other benzodiazepines are classified as Class IV, which are drugs that have a low potential for abuse, have medical therapeutic acceptance, and They have a limited risk of physical or psychological dependence. Addiction professionals report that benzodiazepines are so addictive, both physically and psychologically, as the opioid-derived painkillers (opiates) and other Class II narcotics. In some waysXanax is more problematic than opium-derived pain relievers (drugs) in which suddenly stopping it can cause seizures, requiring medical help for withdrawal. At the same time, opioid withdrawal is painful, but not medically dangerous.

The Xanax is so quickly prescribed to relieve joint stress and lack of sleep; there have been many older patients who have become addicted to their medicine “for nerves” inadvertently, and when they try to leave, they discover that their original complaints are now higher.

Everyone should read and understand the side effects of any psychoactive medication before accepting a prescription to ensure that the result of the treatment implementation is not going to be worse than the initial discomfort.

The following are documented side effects of Xanax bars:

  •  Eruptions
  • Respiratory problems
  • Swelling of the lips, face, tongue, and throat
  • Drowsiness
  • Decreased inhibition (lack of fear when faced with dangerous activities)
  • Hallucinations, emotional disturbances, and hostility
  • Hyperactivity
  • Dizziness, swirling, and fainting
  • Less urine than usual, or no urine
  • Headaches, fatigue, joint pain, and unusual weakness (flu-like symptoms)
  • Problems with speech
  • Total loss of memory (amnesia), and concentration problems
  • Changes in appetite (including weight gain)
  • Blurred vision, instability, and clumsiness (decreased coordination and balance)
  • Decreased sexual desire
  • Dry mouth, or increase in saliva production
  • Nervousness, restlessness, lack of sleep, and sweating
  • Intense or rapid palpitations (panic attacks)
  • Skin inflammation
  • Muscle jump, tremor, and seizures (convulsions)

The list of side effects should stop anyone to risk thinking that Xanax could be beneficial. However, people who are addicted to benzodiazepines or who are withdrawing from other medications are going to take that risk to relieve themselves sooner, only to realize that they have now increased their addiction problems.

What other drugs will affect Xanax?

Taking this medicine with other drugs that make you sleepy or slow your breathing can cause dangerous side effects or death. Ask your d

octor before taking a sleeping pill, narcotic pain medicine, prescription cough medicine, a muscle relaxer, or medicine for anxiety, depression, or seizures.

Tell your doctor about all your current medicines and any you start or stop using, especially:

  • cimetidine;
  • digoxin;
  • antidepressant medications including fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, nefazodone, imipramine, desipramine, and others
  • other psychiatric medications for anxiety or bipolar disorder;
  • seizure medications including carbamazepine and others;
  • antihistamines such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl);
  • birth control pills;
  • ritonavir or other medicines to treat HIV or AIDS; or
  • antifungal medicine, such as fluconazole or voriconazole.

This list is not complete. Other drugs may interact with alprazolam, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible interactions are listed in this medication guide.



What is heroin?

What is heroin?

What is heroin?

Heroin is an opioid drug (derived from opium) made from morphine, a natural substance that is extracted from the seed pod of several poppy plants (opium poppy) that are grown in Southeast and Southwest Asia, in Mexico and in Colombia. Heroin can come in the form of white or brown powder, or as a black sticky substance that is known as “black tar.” Other common names of heroin are the ax, the devil, horse, queen, and black sugar; In English, it is called big H, horse, hell dust and heroin powder. There are 3 types of heroin which are pure heroin, black tar heroin and brown powder heroin 

How is heroin consumed?

Heroin can be injected, inhaled, aspirated or smoked. Some people mix heroin with crack cocaine, a practice known as “fastball” or speedballing.

What effects does heroin produce?

Heroin quickly enters the brain and adheres to opioid cell receptors located in different areas, especially those that are associated with pain and pleasure sensations and those that control heart rate, sleep, and breathing.

Prescription opioids and heroin

Prescription opioid analgesics, such as OxyContin® and Vicodin®, have heroin-like effects. Research suggests that inappropriate use of these medications may open the door to heroin use. Data from 2011 showed that approximately 4% to 6% of those who consumed unduly prescribed opioids went on to consume heroin, and about 80% of people who consumed heroin had previously consumed unduly prescribed opioids. More recent data suggest that heroin is often the first opioid people consume. In a study of people beginning treatment for opioid use disorder, about a third reported that heroin was the first opioid they used regularly to get high.

Short term effects

People who consume heroin report feeling euphoria or “rush”, a wave of pleasant sensations. However, the drug has other common effects, including:

  • Dry mouth
  • Redness and warmth of the skin
  • The feeling of heaviness in arms and legs
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Intense itching
  • Clouding of the mental faculties
  • The repeated alternation between a waking state and numbness (conscious and semi-conscious state)

Long-term effects

People who consume heroin for a long time may experience:

  • Insomnia
  • The collapse of the veins in which the drug is injected
  • Damage to the tissues of the nose (in those who inhale or aspirate)
  • Infection of the pericardium (membrane lining the heart) or heart valves
  • Abscesses (inflamed and pus tissue)
  • Constipation and stomach aches
  • Liver and kidney diseases
  • Pulmonary complications, including pneumonia
  • Mental disorders such as depression and antisocial personality disorder
  • Sexual dysfunction in men
  • Irregular menstrual cycles in women

Injecting drug use, HIV and hepatitis

People who inject drugs such as heroin have an increased risk of contracting HIV and the hepatitis C virus. These diseases are transmitted by contact with blood and other body fluids, something that can happen when sharing needles or other items used to inject Hepatitis C is the most common blood-borne infection in the United States. You can also get HIV (and, less frequently, hepatitis C) during unprotected sexual activity, something that makes the drug more likely.

Learn more about the connection between heroin and these diseases in our report Heroin: Abuse and addiction.

Other potential effects

Heroin often contains additives such as sugar, starch or powdered milk that can clog the blood vessels that reach the lungs, liver, kidneys or brain, and cause permanent damage. In addition, sharing the elements used in the injection of the drug and not thinking clearly when the drug is used may increase the risk of contracting infectious diseases such as HIV or hepatitis (see “Injecting drug use, HIV and hepatitis “).

Is it possible to suffer a heroin powder overdose?

Yes, a person can suffer a heroin overdose. A heroin overdose occurs when the person consumes a sufficient amount of drugs to generate a reaction that endangers his life or causes death. In recent years there has been an increase in cases of a heroin overdose.

When a person suffers a heroin overdose, their breathing slows or stops completely. This can reduce the amount of oxygen that reaches the brain, which is known as hypoxia. Hypoxia can have short or long-lasting brain effects and effects on the nervous system, including coma and permanent brain damage.

How is a heroin overdose treated?

Naloxone is a medicine that can be used to counteract an opioid overdose if given immediately. Quickly adheres to opioid receptors and blocks the effects of heroin and other opioid drugs. Sometimes it is necessary to administer more than one dose to help the person begin to breathe again, so it is important to take the individual to the emergency room or to a doctor’s office to receive the additional help he or she needs. Learn more in the article Opioid Overdose Prevention – Instruction Manual of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Naloxone is available as an injectable solution (with a needle), as an auto-injector (EVZIO ® ) and as a nasal vaporizer (NARCAN ® Nasal Spray). Family members, friends or other community members can use the naloxone nasal spray or auto-injector to save someone who has suffered an overdose.

The increasing number of opioid overdose deaths has led to an increase in public health efforts to make naloxone available to people at risk and their families, as well as to initial relief staff and other community members. In some states, laws have been passed that allow pharmacists to sell naloxone without a prescription.

Is heroin addictive?

Heroin is extremely addictive. Frequently, people who consume heroin on a regular basis develop tolerance, which means they need larger or more frequent doses of the drug to get the effects they are looking for. When the continuous use of a drug generates health problems or problems in the performance of responsibilities in school, work or home, what is known as a drug use disorder occurs? These disorders can be mild or severe. Addiction is the most serious disorder.

Those who are addicted to heroin and stop using the drug abruptly may experience strong withdrawal symptoms. These symptoms, which may begin just a few hours after the last use of the drug, include:

  • Restlessness or restlessness
  • Strong pain in muscles and bones
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Diarrhea and vomiting
  • Waves of cold with “goosebumps”
  • Uncontrollable movements of the legs
  • Intense desire to consume heroin

Researchers are studying the long-term effects of opioid addiction on the brain. Studies have shown that there is some loss of white matter in the brain that is associated with heroin use, which can affect decision making, behavior control and responses to stressful situations.

How is heroin powder addiction treated?

There are several effective treatments to help a person stop using heroin. These treatments include medications and behavioral therapies, that is, therapies that modify behavior. It is important to identify the best treatment strategy for the particular needs of each patient.

Medications are currently being created to help with the withdrawal process. The FDA approved lofexidine, a non-opioid medication formulated to reduce opioid withdrawal symptoms.

Medications that help you stop using heroin include buprenorphine and methadone. These drugs adhere to the same opioid receptors to which heroin adheres to the brain but does so in a weaker way, thus reducing the intense desire for the drug and withdrawal symptoms. Another medication is naltrexone, which blocks opioid receptors and prevents opioid drugs from taking effect. A study by NIDA revealed that once treatment began, the combination of buprenorphine and naloxone is similar in efficacy to a prolonged-release naltrexone formulation to treat opioid addiction. Since it is necessary to complete the detoxification to perform the treatment with naloxone, it was difficult to begin treatment with active consumers,

Behavioral therapies for heroin addiction include methods such as cognitive behavioral therapy and contingency control. Cognitive-behavioral therapy helps to modify the expectations and behavior of the patient in relation to drug use and effectively manage the triggers and stress. Contingency control provides motivational incentives, such as coupons or small cash rewards, that reward positive behaviors, such as not using the drug. These behavioral therapy strategies are especially effective when combined with medications. Find out more about drug addiction treatments in our DrugFacts publication: Treatment approaches for drug addiction.DrugFacts: Treatment approaches for drug addiction.

Points to remember about this drug

  • Heroin is an opioid drug (derived from opium) made from morphine, which is a natural substance that is extracted from the seed pod of several poppy plants (opium poppy).
  • Heroin can come in the form of white or brown powder, or as a sticky black substance that is known as “black tar.”
  •  Heroin is injected, inhaled, aspirated or smoked. Some people mix it with crack cocaine (this is known as “fastball” or speedballing ).
  • Heroin powder quickly enters the brain and adheres to opioid cell receptors located in many areas, especially those that are associated with pain and pleasure sensations and those that control heart rate, sleep, and breathing.
  • People who consume heroin report feeling euphoria or “rush.” Other common effects include dry mouth, heavy feeling in arms and legs, and clouding of mental faculties.
  • Long-term effects may include the collapse of the veins, infection of the pericardium (membrane lining the heart) or heart valves, abscesses and pulmonary complications.
  • Research suggests that inappropriate use of prescription opioid analgesics is a risk factor for starting heroin use.
  • It is possible to suffer a heroin overdose. Naloxone is a medication that, if administered immediately, can counteract a heroin powder overdose, although it may be necessary to administer more than one dose.
  • it can lead to addiction, one of the drug use disorders. Withdrawal symptoms include severe muscle and bone pain, trouble sleeping, diarrhea, vomiting and an intense need for heroin.
  • There are several effective treatments to help a person stop using heroin; They include medications and behavioral therapies. However, treatment plans must be customized to suit the needs of the patient.
What is LSD?

What is LSD?

LSD stands for lysergic acid diethylamide. This is an illegal drug that comes in the form of white powder or a clear liquid without colour. It is available in the form of powder, liquid, tablet or capsule. LSD is usually ingested orally. Some people inhale it through the nose (aspirated) or inject it into a vein (shot).

The street names of the LSD include acid, blotting paper, blotting acid, blue joy, Kool-Aid electric, bumps, Lucy in the sky with diamonds, soft yellow, micro points, purple mist, sugar cubes, sun lashes, and crystal window.


The effects of LSD on the brain

LSD could be a psychoactive substance. Which means that it acts on the brain (central nervous system) and changes your mood, your behaviour and also the approach you relate to the planet around you. LSD affects the way a brain chemical called serotonin acts. Serotonin helps control behaviour, mood, senses and thinking.

LSD is part of a type of drugs called hallucinogens. These are substances that cause hallucinations. Hallucinations are things that you see, hear or feel while awake that seem real, but instead of being, they have been created by the mind. LSD is a very powerful hallucinogen. Only a very small amount is enough to cause effects such as hallucinations.

People who use LSD call their hallucinogenic experiences “travel.” Depending on the amount taken and the way you respond, a trip can be “Good” or “bad.”

An excellent trip will be stimulating and pleasant and cause you to feel:

  • As if it were floating and disconnected from reality.
  • Joy (euphoria or rush ) and reduce inhibition, almost like the result of being drunk from alcohol use.
  • As if his thinking were very clear and as if he had godlike strength; without worrying of something.


A bad trip can be very unpleasant and scary:

  • You may have terrifying thoughts.
  • You can have many emotions at the same time or quickly move from feeling one emotion to feeling another.
  • Your feelings may be distorted. The shapes and sizes of the objects are altered. Or your senses can “cross.” You can feel or hear colours and see sounds.
  • The fears you can usually control are out of control. For example, you may have thoughts of fatality and pessimism, such as thoughts that you will soon die or that you want to hurt yourself or others.

The danger of LSD is that its effects are unpredictable. That means that by using it, you don’t know if you will have a good trip or a bad trip.

How quickly you will feel the effects of LSD will depend on the way you use it:

  • Taken orally: the fact usually begins after 20 to 30 minutes. The effect peaks after 2 to 4 hours and can last up to 12 hours.
  • Injected: If supplied through a vein, the effects of LSD begin in 10 minutes.


Harmful Effects of LSD

LSD can damage the body in different ways and can lead to conditions such as:

  • Increase in heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate and body temperature
  • Insomnia, lack of appetite, tremor and sweating
  • Mental problems that include anxiety, depression and schizophrenia

Some LSD users have flashbacks. This happens when parts of experience with drugs, or trips, return, even without using the medicine again. Retrospective scenes, known in English as flashbacks, happen at times when stress increases. Retrospective scenes tend to happen less frequently and intensely after stopping the use of LSD. Some users who have these experiences often have difficulty living their daily lives.


LSD tolerance

It has not been observed that LSD generates addiction. However, frequent use of this drug may cause tolerance. This means that you may need more and more LSD to achieve the same effect.


Treatment options

Treatment begins with recognizing that there is a problem. Once you decide that you want to do something about your use of LSD, the next step will be to seek help and support.

Treatment programs use behaviour change techniques through counselling ( talk therapy or talk therapy ). These techniques help you understand your behaviours and why you use LSD. Seeking family and friends to participate during treatment can help support you and prevent you from using the drug again (relapse).

Since LSD can cause mental problems, it is possible to prescribe medications to help treat symptoms of anxiety, depression and schizophrenia.


His recovery continues

As you recover, specialize in the after assist forestall a relapse:

  • Continue to attend your treatment sessions.
  • Look for new activities and goals to replace activities that involved drug use.
  • I spent more time with family and friends with whom I lost contact when I was using LSD. Consider not seeing friends who continue to use drugs.
  • Exercise and eat healthy foods. Caring for your body helps you heal from the harmful effects of using LSD. In addition, they will make you feel better.
  • Avoid triggers. These may be the people with whom you used LSD. However, triggers can also be places, things or feelings that may make you want to use LSD again.


When to contact a medical professional

Request an appointment with your health care provider if you or someone you know is using LSD and needs help to stop using it.

Valium 10 mg

Valium 10 mg

1. What is Valium, and what is it used for?

Valium contains as active substance diazepam, which belongs to the group of medicines called benzodiazepines.

Diazepam has calming, sedative, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsant effects.

Doctors prescribe Valium to people with symptoms of anxiety, agitation, and psychic tension caused by psychoneurotic states and transient situational disorders. Benzodiazepines are only indicated for the treatment of an emotional disease that limits their activity or subjects them to a situation of significant stress.

It may also be useful for the relief of symptoms of acute agitation, tremor, and hallucinations in patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

Valium contributes to the relief of muscle pain caused by spasms or inflammation of muscles or joints, traumas, etc. It can also be used to combat spasms caused by diseases such as cerebral palsy (a group of disorders that affect a person’s ability to move, maintain balance and posture) and paraplegia (paralysis of the lower half of the body, which affects both legs ), as well as athetosis (continuous, involuntary, slow and extravagant movements of fingers and hands) and in the generalized stiffness syndrome.

Valium can be used as an adjunctive treatment (treatment that is given after the primary surgery to increase the chances of a cure) of seizure disorders (such as epilepsy, seizures). Still, it has not been proven useful as a single treatment. In these cases, your doctor will periodically evaluate the usefulness of the medication for your case.


2. What you need to know before taking Valium

Do not take Valium

  • If you’re allergic to the active substance or any of the different ingredients of this medication (listed in section 6).
  • If you are allergic (hypersensitive) to other medications in the benzodiazepine group
  • If you suffer from breathing difficulties related or not to sleep for a long time
  • If you suffer from a disease called myasthenia gravis, which is characterized by weakness and muscle fatigue
  • If you suffer from severe respiratory problems (Severe respiratory failure).
  • If you have severe liver problems (acute liver failure).
  • If you suffer from drug or alcohol dependence, you should not take Valium, unless your doctor tells you to.

This medication is not recommended for the primary treatment of psychotic disorders (severe mental disorders that cause abnormal ideas and perceptions), nor should it be used as the sole treatment in patients with depression, alone or associated with anxiety. Your doctor will probably have prescribed another medication for these cases.

Do not use this medicine in children under six months of age.


Warnings and precautions

Consult your doctor or pharmacist before taking Valium.

  • If you have liver or kidney disease
  • If you have breathing difficulties
  • If you suffer from severe muscle weakness
  • If you suffer from other diseases
  • If you have allergies
  • If you have drug or alcohol dependence problems
  • If you are taking other medications

Your doctor will decide whether to take a lower dose of Valium or not at all.

If you have epilepsy and you are following long-term treatment with Valium, the use of the benzodiazepine antagonist Anexate (flumazenil) is not recommended to reverse the effect of Valium, since seizures may occur.


Taking Valium with other medications

Tell your doctor or apothecary if you’re mistreatment, have recently used or might need to use the other medicines. This is extremely important because the simultaneous use of more than one medication can increase or decrease its effect.

Therefore, you should not take Valium with other medications unless your doctor is informed and approves it in advance. For example, tranquilizers, sleep inducers, and similar drugs act on the brain and nerves and can reinforce the effect of Valium.

Cisapride, cimetidine, ketoconazole, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, and omeprazole temporarily increase the sedative effect of Valium, which increases the risk of drowsiness.

Also, the metabolism of phenytoin can be affected if you are taking Valium; therefore, if you are taking this medicine, your doctor will adjust the doses of them.

If you need more information about this, check with your doctor or pharmacist.


Taking Valium with food and drinks

Alcoholic beverages increase the sedative effects of Valium, so avoid using alcoholic beverages during treatment. If you need additional information, consult your doctor.


Dependency Risk

The use of benzodiazepines can lead to dependence. This occurs mainly after taking the medication continuously for a long time. To minimize the risk of dependency, these precautions should be taken into account:

The taking of benzodiazepines will be done only under medical prescription (never because they have resulted in other patients), and never advise them to other people.
Do not increase the doses prescribed by your doctor at all, or prolong the treatment longer than recommended.
Consult your doctor frequently to decide if you ought to continue treatment.


Pregnancy and breastfeeding

Consult your doctor or pharmacist before taking any medicine.

Before starting treatment, your doctor should know if you are or suspect you are pregnant or if you want to be pregnant. The doctor will then decide whether or not to take Valium.

Benzodiazepines pass into breast milk, so you should consult your doctor about taking or not taking Valium while you are breastfeeding.

Driving and using machines

Do not drive or operate tools or machines because this medication can cause sedation, amnesia, difficulty concentrating, and muscle weakness, which can adversely affect the ability to drive vehicles or operate machinery. This effect is increased if you have also consumed alcohol.

Use in the elderly

The elderly may need lower doses of Valium than young patients. If you’re senior, your doctor could inflict a lower dose and check your response to treatment. Please follow your doctor’s directions rigorously.

Valium contains lactose

This medication includes disaccharide. If your doctor has told you that you have AN intolerance to bound sugars, confer with him before taking this medication.


3. How to take Valium

Follow precisely the directions of the administration of these drugs indicated by your doctor. If doubtful, consult back to your doctor or druggist.

Depending on the nature of your illness, your age, and weight, your doctor will prescribe the most appropriate dose and will indicate the duration of your treatment with Valium.

Remember to take your medicine.

Follow these instructions unless your doctor has given you different instructions:


  • Anxiety symptoms: 2 to 10 mg, 2 to 4 times a day, depending on the severity of the symptoms.
  • Symptomatic relief in acute alcohol deprivation: 10 mg, 3 or 4 times during the first 24 hours, reducing to 5 mg 3 or 4 times a day, as needed.
  • Adjuvant for relieving spasm muscle-skeletal: 2 to 10 mg 3 or 4 times a day.
  • Coadjuvant in anticonvulsant therapy: 2 to 10 mg, 2 or 4 times a day.

Special dosages

Use in children: 2 to 2.5 mg, 1 or 2 times a day, gradually increasing according to needs and tolerance; as a rule 0.1-0.3 mg/kg day. Due to the variety of children’s responses to medications that act on the CNS, treatment with the lowest dose should be initiated and increased as required. Do not use in children under six months of age.

In the elderly or the presence of debilitating diseases: 2 to 2.5 mg, 1 or 2 times a day, then gradually increasing, according to need and tolerance.


Treatment should begin with the lowest dose. Do not exceed the maximum dose.

If you think that Valium’s action is too strong or weak, tell your doctor or pharmacist.

In elderly patients or patients with liver or kidney disorders or muscle weakness, in children, in weakened patients or those with a low serum albumin level, the doctor will prescribe a lower dose.

Rules for the proper administration

Do not increase, at all, the doses prescribed by the doctor.

Each dose should not exceed the indicated limits and the total daily dose, either unless your doctor prescribes a higher treatment.

Valium tablets should be taken without chewing, with a little water or a non-alcoholic beverage.

The tablets will be taken at the most necessary hours, usually in the afternoon or evening.

Never change the prescribed dose yourself.

Treatment duration

The duration of treatment should be as short as possible and never exceed 2-3 months. Consult your doctor regularly to decide if treatment should be continued.

Do not prolong the treatment longer than recommended.

To avoid withdrawal symptoms, you should not stop taking Valium abruptly, especially if you have been taking it for a long time.

If you take more Valium which deb e

If you or someone else has taken an overdose of Valium, call your doctor, pharmacist, or the nearest hospital immediately.

In case of overdose or accidental ingestion, consult the Toxicological Information Service, Telephone (91) 562.04.20.

If you forget to take Valium

Do not take a double dose or overdose to make up for forgotten doses. On the contrary, you should continue with normal treatment.

If you stop taking Valium

When the administration ceases, restlessness, anxiety, insomnia, lack of concentration, headache, and hot flashes may occur. It is not recommended, in general, abruptly discontinue the medication but gradually reduce the dose, according to the doctor’s instructions.

If you’ve got to any extent further questions on the employment of these drugs, raise your doctor or pill pusher.



4. Possible side effects

Like all medicines, this medication will cause facet effects, though no person gets them.

If you believe that any of the adverse effects you suffer are severe or if you notice any adverse effects not mentioned in this leaflet, tell your doctor or pharmacist.

The majority of patients tolerate Valium well, but the most common adverse effects, which occur especially at the beginning of treatment, are tiredness and drowsiness.

Occasionally other adverse effects such as confusion, deterioration of alertness, loss of sensation, constipation, depression, diplopia (double vision), ataxia (inability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements), difficulty articulating words, disturbances have been described digestive, heart rhythm disturbance, headache, hypotension, circulatory disturbances, increase or decrease in libido (sexual appetite), nausea, dry mouth or hypersalivation (exaggerated salivary secretion), incontinence or urinary retention, rashes, babble, tremor, vertigo, and blurred vision. The most frequent skin reactions are rash (inflammation of the skin), hives (reddish hives), and pruritus (tingling or uncomfortable irritation of the skin that causes the desire to scratch the affected area).

Very rarely, an increase in transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), as well as cardiac arrest, has been reported.

An increased risk of falls and fractures has been observed in elderly patients and in patients who are taking other sedative medications at the same time (including alcoholic beverages).

It is known that when benzodiazepines are used, adverse behavioral effects such as restlessness, agitation, irritability, delirium (incoherence of ideas), attacks of anger, aggressiveness, nightmares, hallucinations, psychosis (loss of contact with reality) or misconduct. These reactions are more frequent in the elderly and children. If these effects occur, you should stop the treatment and contact your doctor immediately.

On the other hand, the use of benzodiazepines can lead to dependence, especially when the medication is taken continuously for a long time. It is not recommended, in general, abruptly discontinue the drug, always according to the doctor’s instructions.

Anterograde amnesia (difficulty remembering recent events) may appear at normal doses, the risk increases when the dose is increased. Amnesic effects may be associated with behavioral disorders

If any other reaction not described in this leaflet is observed, consult your doctor or pharmacist.

Adverse Effects Communication

If you experience any adverse effect, consult your doctor or pharmacist, even if these are possible side effects that do not appear in this leaflet. You can also communicate them directly through the Spanish Pharmacovigilance System for Medicinal Products for Human Use. By communicating adverse effects, you can contribute to providing more information about the safety of this medicine.


5. Conservation of Valium

Keep these drugs out of sight and reach of kids.

Do not use these drugs when the expiration date seems on the package after CAD. The expiration date is that the Judgment Day of the month indicated.

Medications should not be disposed of through drains or trash. Deposit the containers and drugs you don’t need at the SIGRE Point of the pharmacy. Ask your pharmacist how to dispose of containers and medications that you no longer need. Through this process, you will help to protect the environment.


6. Contents of the package and additional information

Valium composition

  • The active substance is diazepam. Each tablet contains 10 mg of diazepam
  • The other ingredients are lactose monohydrate, corn starch, magnesium stearate, and indigotin blue (E-132).


The appearance of the product and contents of the package

The tablets are cylindrical, with the inscription “Roche 10” on one side and grooved on the other, pale blue.

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